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The diencephalon is a central area of the vertebrate developing brain, where the thalamic nuclear complex, the pretectum and the anterior tegmental structures are generated. It has been subdivided into prosomeres, which are transversal domains defined by morphological and molecular criteria. The zona limitans intrathalamica is a central boundary in the(More)
The vertebrate Central Nervous System (CNS) originates from the embryonic dorsal ectoderm. Differentiation of the neural epithelium from the ectoderm and the formation of the neural plate constitute the first phase of a complex process called neurulation which culminates in the formation of the neural tube, the anlage of the CNS in sauropsids and mammals(More)
Patterning of the early neural tube is achieved in part by the inductive signals, which arise from neuroepithelial signaling centers. The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) is a neuroepithelial domain in the alar plate of the diencephalon which separates the prethalamus from the thalamus. The ZLI has recently been considered to be a possible secondary(More)
In vertebrates, elaborate cellular interactions regulate the establishment of the complex structural pattern of the developing central nervous system. Distinct neural and glial identities are acquired by neuroepithelial cells, through progressive restriction of histogenetic potential under the influence of local environmental signals. The localization of(More)
The diencephalon is the most complex area of the vertebrate brain, being particularly complex in amniotes. It has been suggested that diencephalic regionalization partially depends on local signaling mediated by sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, since the Shh gene is expressed in both the diencephalic basal plate and the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), it(More)
Pitx2, a homeodomain transcription factor, is essential for normal development of the pituitary gland, craniofacial region, eyes, heart, abdominal viscera, and limbs. Complete loss of Pitx2 in mice (Pitx2(-/-)) results in embryonic lethality by approximately e15 due to cardiac defects, whereas embryos with partial loss of function (Pitx2(neo/-) or(More)
Regionalization of the neural tube is a fundamental event in the development of the CNS. The isthmic organizer controls the development of the mesencephalic-rhombencephalic junction by means of fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) expression. The transcription factor paired box 2 (Pax2) is expressed early in the midbrain and is later progressively restricted(More)
BACKGROUND Improved access to skilled health personnel for childbirth is a priority strategy to improve maternal health. This study investigates interventions to achieve this where traditional birth attendants were providers of childbirth care and asks what has been done and what has worked? METHODS AND FINDINGS We systematically reviewed published and(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are well known to be involved in signal transduction from extracellular to intracellular compartments in all eukaryotes. The activation of this cascade will have an effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we describe the cloning of the chick Mkp3 gene that is highly(More)
The development of the central nervous system can be divided into a number of phases, each of which can be subject of genetic or epigenetic alterations that may originate particular developmental disorders. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the vertebrate forebrain develops. Therefore,(More)