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According to the current model, naive B cell activation is dependent on the sequential integration of two signals: B cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking by antigen, followed by cognate interaction with helper T cells through an immunological synapse. Using an improved method to purify human naive B cells we found that BCR stimulation and T cell help induced(More)
A better understanding of the role of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in disease pathogenesis should follow from the discovery of reliable markers capable of discriminating regulatory from activated T cells. We report that the CD4+CD25+ population in synovial fluid of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients comprises both regulatory and effector T cells(More)
The work of our laboratory has focused on the study of human memory B cells. Using an in vitro approach we dissected the triggering requirements of B cells and unveiled a distinct role for TLRs in the activation of naive versus memory B cells. Using an ex vivo approach we analyzed the dynamics of memory B cells and ASCs and the kinetics of serum antibodies(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C causes >50% of all HIV infections worldwide, and an estimated 90% of all transmissions occur mucosally with R5 strains. A pathogenic R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) encoding HIV clade C env is highly desirable to evaluate candidate AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates. To this end, we generated(More)
Interference with virus entry is known to be the principle mechanism of HIV neutralization by antibodies, including 2F5 and 4E10, which bind to the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the gp41 envelope protein. However, to date, the precise molecular events underlying neutralization by MPER-specific antibodies remain incompletely understood. In this(More)
Here, we describe the generation of a novel type of HIV entry inhibitor using the recently developed Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) technology. DARPin proteins specific for human CD4 were selected from a DARPin DNA library using ribosome display. Selected pool members interacted specifically with CD4 and competed with gp120 for binding to CD4.(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from 20 chronically infected patients who participated in a structured treatment interruption (STI) trial were studied to determine whether viral fitness influences reestablishment of viremia. Viruses derived from individuals who spontaneously controlled viremia had significantly lower in vitro(More)
The induction of both cellular and humoral immunity is an important goal for vaccine development against HIV. As a step towards the development of an efficacious vaccine against HIV clade C, the world's most prevalent strain, a combination DNA prime/protein boost immunization strategy was tested. A DNA expression vector was prepared encoding a(More)
A fast and efficient site-directed mutagenesis method has been developed, using the newly constructed plasmid pTPS19, which expresses the toxic CcdB protein originally encoded by the E. coli F plasmid. Once the target gene is cloned into pTPS19, desired mutations can be introduced with two primers. The first contains the desired mutation, and the second is(More)
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