Claudia Monari

Learn More
In this study, we demonstrated that purified capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans is a potent inducer of interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion by human monocytes. Endogenous IL-10 was involved in regulating tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1beta secretion by human monocytes in response to encapsulated C. neoformans strains. Our results suggest a(More)
The regulation by Cryptococcus neoformans encapsulation of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by human monocytes was investigated. By using encapsulated and acapsular C. neoformans, we demonstrated that both strains induce cytokine production, although the acapsular strain was a better stimulator than the(More)
Glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) is a microbial compound that can modulate the immune response. We investigated (1) the receptors involved in uptake of GXM on monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy donors, (2) the effects of GXM on expression of specific receptors, (3) the effects of GXM mediated by pattern-recognition receptors, and (4) GXM modulation(More)
The immunosuppressive properties of Glucuronoxylomannnan (GXM), a purified capsular polysaccharide of the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, have been extensively elucidated. GXM can inhibit the function of cells belonging to both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to inhibition of proinflammatory responses as well as of autoimmune(More)
The capsule is generally considered one of the more powerful virulence factors of microorganisms, driving research in the field of microbial pathogenesis and in the development of vaccines. Cryptococcus neoformans is unique among the most common human fungal pathogens in that it possesses a complex polysaccharide capsule. This review focuses on the(More)
In the present study we investigated the response of monocytes from AIDS patients, susceptible to cryptococcosis (<200 CD4 cells/microl), against Cryptococcus neoformans. Different patterns of response were observed in these cells compared to cells from healthy donors. In particular, fungicidal activity versus this fungus was impaired; this phenomenon could(More)
We previously demonstrated that the principal component of capsular material of Cryptococcus neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), induces interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion from human monocytes. Here we report that encapsulation of the yeast with GXM is able to down-regulate interleukin-12 (IL-12) production by monocytes that would normally occur in the(More)
The encapsulated fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans represents a significant agent of life-threatening infections in immunocompromised subjects. A unique characteristic of Cryptococcus species is the presence of a polysaccharide capsule, which is essential for virulence and endows Cryptococcus with potent immunoregulatory properties. This review(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungus responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised and occasionally in immunocompetent hosts. The fungus is endowed with several virulence factors such as its capsular polysaccharide, which plays a key role in virulence. The major component of capsular material of C. neoformans is(More)
The major virulence factor of Cryptococcus neoformans is its polysaccharide capsule composed of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM) and mannoproteins. A variety of immunomodulating activities have been described for GXM and mannoproteins but little is known about possible interactions of GalXM with the immune system. In the present article,(More)