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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells use the perforin/granzyme pathway as a major mechanism to kill pathogen-containing cells and tumor cells.(1,2) Dysregulation of this pathway results in several human diseases, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Here we characterize the single-cell expression pattern of granzymes A and B(More)
Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space. We report here that C3 activation also occurred intracellularly. We found that the T cell-expressed protease cathepsin L (CTSL) processed C3 into biologically(More)
The immune system must distinguish not only between self and non-self, but also between innocuous and pathological foreign antigens to prevent unnecessary or self-destructive immune responses. Unresponsiveness to harmless antigens is established through central and peripheral processes. Whereas clonal deletion and anergy are mechanisms of peripheral(More)
Key Points • C3aR activation increases ATP efflux, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and IL-1b secretion in human monocytes. • C3aR-activated monocytes drive Th17 responses in vitro and likely in vivo. Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) is a proinflammatory cytokine and a therapeutic target in several chronic autoimmune states. Monocytes and macrophages are the major(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a proinflammatory cytokine and a therapeutic target in several chronic autoimmune states. Monocytes and macrophages are the major sources of IL-1β. IL-1β production by these cells requires Toll-like receptor (TLR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-mediated P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) signals, which together activate the inflammasome.(More)
The NLRP3 inflammasome controls interleukin-1β maturation in antigen-presenting cells, but a direct role for NLRP3 in human adaptive immune cells has not been described. We found that the NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in human CD4(+) T cells and initiates caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1β secretion, thereby promoting interferon-γ production and T helper 1(More)
Expansion and acquisition of Th1 cell effector function requires metabolic reprogramming; however, the signals instructing these adaptations remain poorly defined. Here we found that in activated human T cells, autocrine stimulation of the complement receptor CD46, and specifically its intracellular domain CYT-1, was required for induction of the amino acid(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) participate in the control of the immune response. In the human system, an IL-10-secreting, T regulatory type 1 cell (Tr1)-like subset of Tregs can be induced by concurrent cross-linking of the TCR and CD46 on naive CD4(+) T cells. Because many viral and bacterial pathogens, including the major human pathogen Streptococcus(More)
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are key molecular determinants of T cell fate and effector function. A number of inflammatory diseases are characterized by an altered balance of T cell phenotypes and cytokine secretion. STATs, therefore, represent viable therapeutic targets in numerous pathologies. However, the underlying(More)
The inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that induce and regulate the generation of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in response to infectious microbes and cellular stress. The activation of inflammasomes involves several upstream signals including classic pattern or danger recognition systems such as the TLRs. Recently,(More)