Learn More
The immune system must distinguish not only between self and non-self, but also between innocuous and pathological foreign antigens to prevent unnecessary or self-destructive immune responses. Unresponsiveness to harmless antigens is established through central and peripheral processes. Whereas clonal deletion and anergy are mechanisms of peripheral(More)
The complement system was traditionally known as an effector arm of humoral immunity. Today we also recognize it as a main element of the innate immune system. In blood and other body fluids complement is a first line of defence against pathogens, because it becomes fully active within seconds. Active complement fragments attach to the invading pathogen to(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells use the perforin/granzyme pathway as a major mechanism to kill pathogen-containing cells and tumor cells.(1,2) Dysregulation of this pathway results in several human diseases, such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Here we characterize the single-cell expression pattern of granzymes A and B(More)
Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space. We report here that C3 activation also occurred intracellularly. We found that the T cell-expressed protease cathepsin L (CTSL) processed C3 into biologically(More)
In this study we demonstrate a new form of immunoregulation: engagement on CD4(+) T cells of the complement regulator CD46 promoted the effector potential of T helper type 1 cells (T(H)1 cells), but as interleukin 2 (IL-2) accumulated, it switched cells toward a regulatory phenotype, attenuating IL-2 production via the transcriptional regulator ICER/CREM(More)
During the 1980s CD46 was discovered in a search for C3b binding proteins of human peripheral blood cells. Its role as an inactivator of C3b and C4b deposited on self-tissue is highlighted by the observation that partial deficiency of CD46 is a predisposing factor to hemolytic uremic syndrome. This discovery has an impact on the treatment options for these(More)
Complement is traditionally known to be a system of serum proteins that provide protection against pathogens through direct cell lysis and the mobilization of innate and adaptive immunity. However, recent work indicates that the complement system has additional physiological roles beyond those in host defence. In this Opinion article, we describe the new(More)
Properdin was first described over 50 years ago by Louis Pillemer and his collaborators as a vital component of an antibody-independent complement activation pathway. In the 1970s properdin was shown to be a stabilizing component of the alternative pathway convertases, the central enzymes of the complement cascade. Recently we have reported that properdin(More)
Apoptotic cells must be rapidly eliminated to avoid harmful inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. Innate immunity is designed/poised to identify dying cells by their unique surface-associated molecular patterns. Here we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that the human complement protein properdin binds to early apoptotic T cells and(More)
The NLRP3 inflammasome controls interleukin-1β maturation in antigen-presenting cells, but a direct role for NLRP3 in human adaptive immune cells has not been described. We found that the NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in human CD4(+) T cells and initiates caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1β secretion, thereby promoting interferon-γ production and T helper 1(More)