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The cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF)1 and CNF2 from pathogenic Escherichia coli strains activate RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 by deamidation of Gln63 (RhoA) or Gln61 (Rac and Cdc42). Recently, a novel cytotoxic necrotizing factor termed CNFY was identified in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains (Lockman, H. A., Gillespie, R. A., Baker, B. D., and Shakhnovich,(More)
Tumor progression is controlled by signals from cellular and extra-cellular microenvironment including stromal cells and the extracellular matrix. Consequently, three-dimensional in vitro tumor models are essential to study the interaction of tumor cells with their microenvironment appropriately in a biologically relevant manner. We have previously used(More)
In the healthy intestinal mucosa, homeostasis between the immune system and commensal microflora prevents detrimental inflammatory responses. Infection with acute enteropathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium disturbs this homeostasis and triggers inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that bacterial(More)
The cytotoxic necrotizing factors CNF1 and CNF2 produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and CNF(Y) of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis constitutively activate small GTPases of the Rho family. They deamidate a glutamine (Gln63 in RhoA), which is crucial for GTP hydrolysis. CNF1 and CNF(Y) exhibit 61% identity on the amino acid level, with equal(More)
The innate immune system is of vital importance for protection against infectious pathogens. Inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1beta and IL-18 is an important arm of the innate immune system. Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, SL1344) is an(More)
Recently, it was shown that Yersinia outer protein T (YopT) belongs to a new family of cysteine proteases containing invariant C, H, and D residues that are crucial for its activity. YopT cleaves RhoA, Rac, and Cdc42 at their C termini, thereby releasing them from the membrane. Moreover, YopT inhibits the Rho-rhotekin and Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation(More)
Caspase-1 is an important converging point for danger signals initiating inflammation and defense. Recent work suggests that RhoGTPase activation and/or cyto-skeletal disturbance may represent a novel pathway eliciting caspase-1 responses that are subverted by several enteropathogenic bacteria. The enteropathogen Salmonella Typhimurium employs the type III(More)
Cytotoxic necrotizing factors CNF1 and CNF2 are produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. They constitutively activate small GTPases of the Rho family by deamidation of a glutamine, which is crucial for GTP hydrolysis. Recently, a novel CNF (CNF(Y)) encompassing 65% identity to CNF1 has been identified in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In contrast to(More)
The actin cytoskeleton of mammalian cells is involved in many processes that affect the growth and colonization of bacteria, such as migration of immune cells, phagocytosis by macrophages, secretion of cytokines, maintenance of epithelial barrier functions and others. With respect to these functions, it is not surprising that many bacterial protein toxins,(More)
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