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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are two common neurodevelopmental syndromes that result from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors. We set out to test the hypothesis that rare variants in many different genes, including de novo variants, could predispose to these conditions in a fraction of cases. In addition, for(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the expansion of a polymorphic (CAG)(n) tract, which is translated into an expanded polyglutamine tract in the ataxin-2 protein. Although repeat length and age at disease onset are inversely related, approximately 50% of the age at onset variance in SCA2 remains unexplained.(More)
Three cDNA clones for the Machado-Joseph disease gene (MJD1) were isolated, two of which have a new exon sequence and a distinct 3' terminal nucleotide sequence resulting in a new carboxyl terminal domain in the translated product. The nucleotide sequence of the other one is similar to the previously published one except for five polymorphisms, one of which(More)
Diseases affecting motor neurons, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gerhig's disease), hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease) are a heterogeneous group of chronic progressive diseases and are among the most puzzling yet untreatable illnesses. Over the last decade, identification of mutations in genes(More)
BACKGROUND Direct detection of the gene mutation allows for the confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide. OBJECTIVE To address the main difficulties in our national MJD predictive testing program. The first was the emergence of intermediate(More)
The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders varying in both clinical manifestations and mode of inheritance. Six different genes causing autosomal dominant SCA are mapped: SCA1, SCA2, Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/SCA3, SCA4, SCA5, and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Expansions of an unstable(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 is caused by the expansion of the coding CAG repeat in the ATXN3 gene. Interestingly, a -1 bp frameshift occurring within an (exp)CAG repeat would henceforth lead to translation from a GCA frame, generating polyalanine stretches instead of polyglutamine. Our results show that transgenic expression of (exp)CAG ATXN3 led to -1(More)
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent sleep disorder that is linked to disturbed iron homeostasis. Genetic studies identified MEIS1 as an RLS-predisposing gene, where the RLS risk haplotype is associated with decreased MEIS1 mRNA and protein expression. We show here that RNA interference treatment of the MEIS1 worm orthologue increases ferritin(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and Machado-Joseph disease are two autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias caused by expansions of unstable CAG repeats in the coding region of the causative genes. The selectivity of cell death and the resulting characteristic neuropathological features in each of these diseases are not explained by the gene expression patterns.(More)
BACKGROUND Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a type of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia for which molecular diagnosis is available. We identified 4 families segregating the MJD mutation in which no unequivocal clinical diagnosis could be established prior to molecular testing. Ethnic background, clinical, and molecular characteristics of 19(More)