Claudia Fritz

Learn More
Background: There is insufficient evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This is the first report on the treatment with infliximab over 5 years. Methods: As part of a multicentre randomised trial, 69 patients with active AS at baseline (BL) have been continuously(More)
In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical(More)
The input acoustic impedance of musical wind instruments necessarily has a dramatic variation with frequency. Our technique uses an acoustic current source whose output is calibrated on a purely resistive load, provided by a 'semi-infinite' cylindrical pipe. The frequencies, amplitudes and phases of the sinusoidal components in the stimulus are chosen(More)
This paper investigated how auditory and vibrotactile feedback information is integrated within the context of violin quality evaluation. Fifteen violinists evaluated three violins on four criteria-"Rich Sound," "Loud and Powerful," "Alive and Responsive," and "Pleasure"-during a perceptual experiment. Violinists first evaluated the violins one at a time(More)
Most violinists believe that instruments by Stradivari and Guarneri "del Gesu" are tonally superior to other violins--and to new violins in particular. Many mechanical and acoustical factors have been proposed to account for this superiority; however, the fundamental premise of tonal superiority has not yet been properly investigated. Player's judgments(More)
Performers often discuss the sound quality of a violin or the sound obtained by particular playing techniques, calling upon a diverse vocabulary. This study explores the verbal descriptions, made by performers, of the distinctive timbres of different violins. Sixty-one common descriptors were collected and then arranged by violinists on a map, so that words(More)
This study is the first step in the psychoacoustic exploration of perceptual differences between the sounds of different violins. A method was used which enabled the same performance to be replayed on different "virtual violins," so that the relationships between acoustical characteristics of violins and perceived qualities could be explored. Recordings of(More)
The overall goal of the research presented here is to better understand how players evaluate violins within the wider context of finding relationships between measurable vibrational properties of instruments and their perceived qualities. In this study, the reliability of skilled musicians to evaluate the qualities of a violin was examined. In a first(More)
INTRODUCTION Data from clinical studies on the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are scarce. This is the first report on continuous treatment with the TNFα fusion protein etanercept over seven years (y). METHODS Overall, 26 patients with active AS were initially treated(More)
Previous qualitative studies (Mooney [1], Benade [2], Hoekje [3]) confirm musicians' opinions that the vocal tract (VT) affects both timbre and pitch. Johnston, Troup and Clinch [4] modelled the tract as a one peak resonator, which, if tuned to the fundamental f 0 of a clarinet, gives a playing frequency of f 0. But this result depends upon their particular(More)