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The ability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) to persist and cause AIDS is dependent on its avoidance of antibody-mediated neutralization. The virus elicits abundant, envelope-directed antibodies that have little neutralization capacity. This lack of neutralization is paradoxical, given the functional conservation and exposure of receptor-binding(More)
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) results in the dissemination of virus to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Subsequently, HIV-1 mediates massive depletion of gut CD4+ T cells, which contributes to HIV-1-induced immune dysfunction. The migration of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue is mediated by integrin alpha4beta7. We(More)
The growth arrest-specific gas5 gene was isolated from mouse genomic DNA and structurally characterized. The transcriptional unit is divided into 12 exons that span around 7 kb. An alternative splicing mechanism gives rise to two mature mRNAs which contain either 11 or 12 exons, and both are found in the cytoplasm of growth-arrested cells. In vivo, the gas5(More)
The high affinity IgE receptor (Fc(epsilon)RI) plays a central role in the initiation of allergic responses. Fc(epsilon)RI is multimeric and is expressed as either (alpha)(gamma2) trimers or (alpha)(beta)(gamma2) tetramers. Recently, polymorphisms of the beta chain gene have been associated with the development of various allergic phenotypes. Until now, the(More)
particular individual to an allergen is more intense than that of another are poorly understood. However, the and Jean-Pierre Kinet importance of genetic background in the development Laboratory of Allergy and Immunology of atopic disease is underscored by the tendency of Department of Pathology severe atopic disease to run in families. Recently, sev-Beth(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects macrophages effectively, despite relatively low levels of cell surface-expressed CD4. Although HIV-1 infections are defined by viral tropisms according to chemokine receptor usage (R5 and X4), variations in infection are common within both R5- and X4-tropic viruses, indicating additional factors(More)
Binding of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins to the surface of a CD4(+) T cell transduces intracellular signals through the primary envelope receptor, CD4, and a coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. Furthermore, envelope-CD4(+) cell interactions increase rates of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We demonstrate that in primary T(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a central role in innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections. pDCs secrete type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines upon stimulation by either TLR7 or TLR9. Throughout the course of HIV infection, the production of type-I IFNs is profoundly impaired, and total pDC cell counts in peripheral blood(More)
Among nonhuman primates, SIV-infected Asian pigtailed macaques (PM) are relatively more susceptible to infection and disease progression than SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM). In addition, SIV-infected African natural hosts such as the sooty mangabeys (SM) are resistant to disease. The mechanisms associated with such species-related variable clinical(More)
We examined the role of CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 in HIV envelope-mediated apoptosis by measuring the response of activated PBMCs to recombinant envelope proteins derived from CXCR4- and CCR5-utilizing viruses. Apoptosis of T cells was assessed by annexin-V staining and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling. Treatment of CCR5Delta32 homozygote PBMCs with a(More)