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This study examined the role of dopamine (DA) in partner preference (PP) formation in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). The nonspecific DA antagonist haloperidol blocked mating-induced PP, whereas the nonspecific DA agonist apomorphine induced PP without mating. The D2 antagonist eticlopride, but not the D1 antagonist SCH23390, blocked PP,(More)
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a monogamous rodent that forms long-lasting pair bonds, has proven useful for the neurobiological study of social attachment. In the laboratory, pair bonds can be assessed by testing for a partner preference, a choice test in which pair-bonded voles regularly prefer their partner to a conspecific stranger. Studies(More)
Steroidogenesis begins with the metabolism of cholesterol to pregnenolone by the inner mitochondrial membrane cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme. The rate of steroid formation, however, depends on the rate of cholesterol transport from intracellular stores to the inner mitochondrial membrane and loading of P450scc with cholesterol. In(More)
Neurosteroids in rodents can originate from peripheral tissues or be locally synthesized in specific brain areas. There is, as yet, no information about the synthesis and regulation of neurosteroids in human brain. We examined the ability of human brain cells to synthesize steroids from a radiolabeled precursor and the mRNA and protein expression of key(More)
Pregnenolone, the precursor of all steroids, is synthesized by CNS structures. The synthesis requires an obligatory step involving cholesterol transport to mitochondrial cytochrome P450-cholesterol side chain cleavage (cytP450scc), although the underlying mechanism(s) are still mostly unknown. We used the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line to investigate(More)
Neurosteroids (steroids synthesized in the CNS) function by modulating neurotransmission. To establish an experimental model for investigation of neurosteroid synthesis and regulation, independent of blood-borne steroids, we examined the steroidogenic activity of isolated rat retinas. We identified progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone,(More)
The toxic properties of beta-amyloid protein, Abeta(1-42), the major component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, depend on nucleation-dependent oligomerization and aggregation. In addition, Abeta(1-42) toxicity is favored by the presence of trace metals, which affect the secondary structure of the peptide. A peptide comprising 11 residues within(More)
In peripheral steroidogenic tissues, dehydroepiandrosterone (D) is formed from pregnenolone (P) by the microsomal cytochrome P450c17 enzyme. Although some steroidogenic P450s have been found in brain tissue, no enzyme has been shown to possess P450c17 activity. We recently demonstrated the presence of an alternative, Fe(2+)-dependent pathway responsible for(More)
It has been previously shown that retinal ganglion cells have the ability to synthesize steroids including neuroactive steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate. Since ganglion cells possess GABAA/benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and neurosteroids modulate retinal GABAA receptor function, we investigated the role of these receptors in isolated rat retina(More)
Here we investigated the possible regulation of neurosteroidogenesis by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activation and addressed the hypothesis that neurosteroid synthesis may be involved in acute excitotoxicity. In the isolated retina, exposure to NMDA modified pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulphate formation. This effect was dose and time(More)