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Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs constitute the receptor foundation to the "muscle sense." Muscle sensitivity has long been assumed relevant to the non-visual perception of the positions and motions of the body's segments and of the properties of hand-held objects. Dynamic touch is the label given to the particular kind of tactile exteroperception(More)
The time derivative (tau) of the inverse of the relative rate of optical expansion (tau) may have critical values with potential implications for controlling activity. The present research addresses the particular hypothesis that tau < -0.5 specifies "unsafe" collision courses and tau > or = -0.5 specifies "safe" collision courses. Optical expansion(More)
In the most general case, haptic perception of an object's heaviness is most likely the perception of the object's resistance to movement, determined jointly by the object's mass and mass distribution. In two experiments with occluded objects wielded freely in three dimensions, we showed additive effects on perceived heaviness of mass and the inertia(More)
Spatial perception by dynamic touch is a well-documented capability of the hand and arm. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the foot and leg suggest that such a capability may not generalize to that putatively less dexterous limb. The authors examined length perception by dynamic touch in a task in which weighted aluminum rods were grasped(More)
Perceiving the length of a rod by dynamic touch is tied to the inertia tensor Iij, a quantification of its resistance to rotational acceleration. Perception of the portion extending in front of the grasp has previously been ascribed to decomposing one component of Iij by attention. The tensorial nature of dynamic touch suggests that this ability must be(More)
By watching each other's lower oscillating leg, 2 seated Ss kept a common tempo and a particular phase relation of either 0 degrees (symmetric mode) or 180 degrees (alternate mode). This study investigated the differential stability of the 2 phase modes. In Experiment 1, in which Ss were instructed to remain in the initial phase mode, the alternate phase(More)
A study is reported in which it is shown that observers can use at least three types of acoustic variables that indicate reliably when a moving sound source is passing: interaural temporal differences, the Doppler effect, and amplitude change. Each of these variables was presented in isolation and each was successful in indicating when a (stimulated) moving(More)
Successful use of a hand-held tool requires overcoming the rotational inertia of the hand-plus-tool system. Where an object is grasped affects this rotational inertia. Appropriate choice of grip position may be crucial in the safe, effective, and efficient control of a hand-held tool. In 3 experiments, the authors investigated how choice of grip position on(More)
Knowing about the properties of objects by wielding them and knowing about the distances of surfaces by striking them with objects as probes are examples of dynamic or effortful touch. Six experiments focused on the invariant mechanical parameters that couple the time-varying states (displacements, velocities) of hand-held rods to the time-varying torques(More)