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In a pilot study, we identified Chlamydia pneumoniae in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction in 5 of 10 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS). In a second series, 2 of 20 patients with definite MS and 3 of 17 patients with possible/probable MS or MS variants, but none of 56 patients with other neurological, diseases were polymerase(More)
Microbial agents may play a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). C. pneumoniae has been recently associated with MS; however, study results are at variance. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific DNA and RNA are more often detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis than patients with other(More)
Valproic acid (VPA) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug and is usually well-tolerated. Rare serious complications may occur in some patients, including haemorrhagic pancreatitis, bone marrow suppression, VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and VPA-induced encephalopathy. The typical signs of VPA-induced encephalopathy are impaired consciousness, sometimes marked(More)
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