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BACKGROUND The B3 DNA binding domain includes five families: auxin response factor (ARF), abscisic acid-insensitive3 (ABI3), high level expression of sugar inducible (HSI), related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV) and reproductive meristem (REM). The release of the complete genomes of the angiosperm eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, the monocot Orysa(More)
The sponge species Chondrilla nucula has a simple morphology and a very wide geographical distribution. To verify whether the latter might be an artifact of the former, samples of this species were collected across 10,000 km of its range, in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, and the southwestern atlantic. The classical (spicule morphology) and molecular(More)
The origin of endemic South American canid fauna has been traditionally linked with the rise of the Isthmus of Panama, suggesting that diversification of the dog fauna on this continent occurred very rapidly. Nevertheless, despite its obvious biogeographic appeal, the tempo of Canid evolution in South America has never been studied thoroughly. This issue(More)
The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene of primates encodes a transmembrane protein involved in cellular signaling of some cell types of the immune system. Numerous studies have shown that this peptide is used by lentiviruses in conjunction with the CD4 receptor to mediate binding and entry in target cells of human and non-human primates. New World monkeys(More)
The origin of New World monkeys (Infraorder Platyrrhini) has been an extensively debated issue. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial genomes from Cebus (Platyrrhini), Homo, Hylobates, Pan, Pongo (Hominoids), Macaca, Papio (Cercopithecoids), and Tarsius (outgroup) to investigate this matter. Two distinct methodologies were employed on mitochondrial genes(More)
Following the development of PCR methods, molecular techniques have become widely used for detecting genetic variation in natural populations. Most nucleotide changes can be detected by these techniques. Many of these changes probably reflect silent substitutions that are likely to be selectively neutral, making them particularly suitable to population(More)
The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three(More)
In spite of the remarkable diversity of HIV-1 env genes, several amino acids are extremely conserved, probably due to functional constraints. One example is the proline found at the second position of the GPGR motif. Several viruses, however, bear substitutions at this site, for instance, GWGR subtype B variant. GWGR viruses are described in Brazil since(More)
Most biological groups are still longing for a phylogenetically sound taxonomic organization. In this article, we aimed to verify the consistency of morphological characters in calcarean sponges of the well-known non-monophyletic order Clathrinida using a molecular phylogeny. For this we included 50 species, including six type species, currently assigned to(More)
Penaeid shrimps are an important resource in crustacean fisheries, representing more than the half of the gross production of shrimp worldwide. In the present study, we used a sample of wide-ranging diversity (41 shrimp species) and two mitochondrial markers (758 bp) to clarify the evolutionary relationships among Penaeidae genera. Three different(More)