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Modulation of human recombinant secretory type II phospholipase A(2) activity by ceramide and cholesterol was investigated using model glycerophospholipid substrates composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine dispersed in aqueous medium. Enzyme activity was monitored by measurement of released fatty acids using capillary GC-MS. Fatty acids(More)
BACKGROUND Basic cell-penetrating peptides are potential vectors for therapeutic molecules and display antimicrobial activity. The peptide-membrane contact is the first step of the sequential processes leading to peptide internalization and cell activity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in peptide-membrane interaction are not well understood and(More)
Thirty-four different loci for hereditary spastic paraplegias have been mapped, and 16 responsible genes have been identified. Autosomal recessive forms of spastic paraplegias usually have clinically complex phenotypes but the SPG5, SPG24 and SPG28 loci are considered to be associated with 'pure' forms of the disease. Very recently, five mutations in the(More)
The lipid composition and structure of detergent-resistant membrane rafts from human, goat, and sheep erythrocytes is investigated. While the sphingomyelin:cholesterol ratio varied from about 1:5 in human to 1:1 in sheep erythrocytes a ratio of 1:1 was found in all raft preparations insoluble in Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C. Excess cholesterol is excluded(More)
Conjectural results have been reported on the capacity of inflammatory secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) to hydrolyse mammalian membrane phospholipids. Development of an assay based on the release of non-esterified fatty acids by the enzyme acting on the organized phospholipid mixture constituting the membrane matrix has led to the identification of two(More)
The structure, thermotropic phase behavior, dynamic motion and order parameters of bilayer dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine, egg sphingomyelin, egg ceramide and cholesterol have been determined. The coexistence of gel, liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered structure has been determined by peak fitting analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder patterns.(More)
Modulation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) activity by sphingomyelin (SPH), ceramide (Cer), and cholesterol (Chol) was investigated in CHO-2B cells activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 and epinephrine. Chol depletion of CHO-2B cells by treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (5 mm) resulted in the inhibition of the release of arachidonic acid(More)
BACKGROUND Phospholipases D (PLD) are major components of signalling pathways in plant responses to some stresses and hormones. The product of PLD activity is phosphatidic acid (PA). PAs with different acyl chains do not have the same protein targets, so to understand the signalling role of PLD it is essential to analyze the composition of its PA products(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of type-II secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) in alveolar space and its possible role in the destruction of surfactant in three rat models of acute lung injury. Alveolar instillation of either lipopolysaccaride or live Pseudomonas aeruginosa resulted in a significant increase in lung oedema and in a(More)
Free-standing giant unilamellar vesicles were used to visualize the complex lateral heterogeneity, induced by ceramide in the membrane bilayer at micron scale using C(12)-NBD-PC probe partitioning under the fluorescence microscope. Ceramide gel domains exist as leaf-like structures in glycerophospholipid/ceramide mixtures. Cholesterol readily increases(More)