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Modulation of human recombinant secretory type II phospholipase A(2) activity by ceramide and cholesterol was investigated using model glycerophospholipid substrates composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine dispersed in aqueous medium. Enzyme activity was monitored by measurement of released fatty acids using capillary GC-MS. Fatty acids(More)
BACKGROUND Basic cell-penetrating peptides are potential vectors for therapeutic molecules and display antimicrobial activity. The peptide-membrane contact is the first step of the sequential processes leading to peptide internalization and cell activity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in peptide-membrane interaction are not well understood and(More)
Thirty-four different loci for hereditary spastic paraplegias have been mapped, and 16 responsible genes have been identified. Autosomal recessive forms of spastic paraplegias usually have clinically complex phenotypes but the SPG5, SPG24 and SPG28 loci are considered to be associated with 'pure' forms of the disease. Very recently, five mutations in the(More)
The lipid composition and structure of detergent-resistant membrane rafts from human, goat, and sheep erythrocytes is investigated. While the sphingomyelin:cholesterol ratio varied from about 1:5 in human to 1:1 in sheep erythrocytes a ratio of 1:1 was found in all raft preparations insoluble in Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C. Excess cholesterol is excluded(More)
The structure, thermotropic phase behavior, dynamic motion and order parameters of bilayer dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine, egg sphingomyelin, egg ceramide and cholesterol have been determined. The coexistence of gel, liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered structure has been determined by peak fitting analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder patterns.(More)
The phase behaviour of mixed molecular species of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin of biological origin were examined in aqueous co-dispersions using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The co-dispersions of phospholipids studied were aimed to model the mixing of lipids populating the cytoplasmic and outer leaflets in the resting or(More)
BACKGROUND Phospholipases D (PLD) are major components of signalling pathways in plant responses to some stresses and hormones. The product of PLD activity is phosphatidic acid (PA). PAs with different acyl chains do not have the same protein targets, so to understand the signalling role of PLD it is essential to analyze the composition of its PA products(More)
Human disorders caused by inborn errors of cholesterol biosynthesis are characterized by dysmorphogenesis of multiple organs. This includes limb malformations that are observed at high frequency in some disorders, such as the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, indicating a pivotal role of cholesterol in limb morphogenesis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that(More)
Abnormalities in membrane lipids have been repeatedly reported in patients with schizophrenia. These abnormalities include decreased phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in peripheral and brain cell membranes. The present study investigates the hypothesis of an overrepresentation of PE in the external leaflet of the red(More)
Free-standing giant unilamellar vesicles were used to visualize the complex lateral heterogeneity, induced by ceramide in the membrane bilayer at micron scale using C(12)-NBD-PC probe partitioning under the fluorescence microscope. Ceramide gel domains exist as leaf-like structures in glycerophospholipid/ceramide mixtures. Cholesterol readily increases(More)