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Non-coding (nc)RNAs are key players in numerous biological processes such as gene regulation, chromatin domain formation and genome stability. Large ncRNAs interact with histone modifiers and are involved in cancer development, X-chromosome inactivation and autosomal gene imprinting. However, despite recent evidence showing that pervasive transcription is(More)
Nucleosome positioning plays an essential role in cellular processes by modulating accessibility of DNA to proteins. Here, using only sequence-dependent DNA flexibility and intrinsic curvature, we predict the nucleosome occupancy along the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster and demonstrate the predictive power and universality(More)
Long non-protein coding RNAs (npcRNA) represent an emerging class of riboregulators, which either act directly in this long form or are processed to shorter miRNA and siRNA. Genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of full-length cDNA databases identified 76 Arabidopsis npcRNAs. Fourteen npcRNAs were antisense to protein-coding mRNAs, suggesting cis-regulatory(More)
We explore the large-scale behavior of nucleotide compositional strand asymmetries along human chromosomes. As we observe for 7 of 9 origins of replication experimentally identified so far, the (TA+GC) skew displays rather sharp upward jumps, with a linear decreasing profile in between two successive jumps. We present a model of replication with well(More)
The pairwise comparison of RNA secondary structures is a fundamental problem, with direct application in mining databases for annotating putative noncoding RNA candidates in newly sequenced genomes. An increasing number of software tools are available for comparing RNA secondary structures, based on different models (such as ordered trees or forests, arc(More)
Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells(More)
Alternative splicing of human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) pre-mRNA produces four mRNAs leading to four different TH isoforms and is thought to have important regulatory functions. We show that the diversity of TH mRNAs is greater than previously described in the autonomous nervous system: New splice junctions corresponding to the skipping of exon 3 were(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamines. Among the various mechanisms implicated in the regulation of TH activity, alternative splicing of TH primary transcript has been described as a characteristic of higher primates and Drosophila. We investigated whether there is such a regulatory(More)
We explore large-scale nucleotide compositional fluctuations of the human genome using multiresolution techniques. Analysis of the GC content and of the AT and GC skews reveals the existence of rhythms with two main periods of 110+/-20 kb and 400+/-50 kb that enlighten a remarkable cooperative gene organization. We show that the observed nonlinear(More)
In higher eukaryotes, replication program specification in different cell types remains to be fully understood. We show for seven human cell lines that about half of the genome is divided in domains that display a characteristic U-shaped replication timing profile with early initiation zones at borders and late replication at centers. Significant overlap is(More)