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This study presents normal values of bowel habits, colonic transit times of radioopaque markers, and anorectal pressure obtained from 114 normal subjects. Their stool frequency ranged from 3 to 11 per 7 days, whereas their diet contained an average of 14.4 g of crude fibers. Radioopaque markers progressed regularly along the large bowel and a range of(More)
Transit of radiopaque markers was delayed in the ascending colon of 51 females and 3 males treated for severe idiopathic constipation. Onset of symptoms was between age 10 and 20 in more than half of the patients. Eighteen percent had previously undergone unnecessary laparotomy for large bowel pseudoobstruction. Stool frequency ranged from 1 stool every(More)
Anorectal myectomy was performed in 62 patients suffering from symptoms attributed to ineffective colonic motility. Indications for surgery rested on the presence of one or more of the following three criteria: abnormally reduced stool frequency, prolonged transit of radioopaque markers, and abnormal anorectal manometry. One year after myectomy in the 50(More)
In 36 patients who consulted for fecal incontinence or rectal pain, or both, there was grossly visible scarring of the rectum and biopsy revealed mucosal atrophy and fibrosis. A steal from the hemorrhoidal arteries to the iliac vessels was demonstrated in 3 subjects. Maximum tolerable volumes within a rectal balloon were smaller than in control subjects,(More)
— Snow is a critical component of the global water cycle and climate system, and a major source of water supply in many parts of the world. There is a lack of spatially distributed information on the accumulation of snow on land surfaces, glaciers, lake ice and sea ice. Satellite missions for systematic and global snow observations will be essential to(More)
Air temperature and winter precipitation changes over the last five decades have impacted the timing, duration , and thickness of the ice cover on Arctic lakes as shown by recent studies. In the case of shallow tundra lakes, many of which are less than 3 m deep, warmer climate conditions could result in thinner ice covers and consequently, in a smaller(More)
Models and observations show that the Arctic is experiencing the most rapid changes in global near-surface air temperature. We developed novel EASE-grid Level 3 (L3) land surface temperature (LST) products from Level 2 (L2) AATSR and MODIS data to provide weekly, monthly and annual LST means over the pan-Arctic region at various grid resolutions (1–25 km)(More)
There are many lakes of widely varying morphometry in northern latitudes. For this study region, in the central Mackenzie River valley of western Canada, lakes make up 37% of the landscape. The nonlake components of the landscape are divided into uplands (55%) and wetlands (8%). With such abundance, lakes are important features that can influence the(More)
—The University of Waterloo scatterometer, which is a system developed for observation of snow and ice properties, is described. The system is composed of two frequency-modulated continuous-wave radars operating at center frequencies of 17.2 and 9.6 GHz. A field-deployable platform allows a rapid setup and observation at remote sites under harsh(More)