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Retrotransposable elements and transposons are generally both found in most eukaryotes. These two classes of elements are usually distinguished on the basis of their differing mechanisms of transposition. However, their respective frequencies, their intragenomic dynamics and distributions, and the frequencies of their horizontal transfer from one species to(More)
A molecular phylogeny for the drosophilid genus Zaprionus was inferred using a mitochondrial (CO-II) and a nuclear (Amyrel) gene using 22 available species. The combined molecular tree does not support the current classification, dubbed phylogenetic, based entirely upon a morphocline of forefemoral ornamentation. For species for which DNA was not available,(More)
Drosophila cells were treated with increasing concentrations of CdCl2 (10 microM-1 mM). The toxicity of cadmium, as observed by cellular death and the ability of the cells to survive after removal of CdCl2, depended on concentration and duration of treatment. The overall synthesis of protein, measured by incorporation of [35S]methionine, decreased. It fell(More)
A full-length copy of the retrotransposon GATE was identified as an insertion in the tandemly repeated, heterochromatic, Stellate genes, which are expressed in the testis of Drosophila melanogaster. Sequencing of this heterochromatic GATE copy revealed that it is closely related to the BEL retrotransposon, a representative of the recently defined BEL-like(More)
We analyse the expression of the retrotransposon 412 in the soma, testes, and ovaries in populations of Drosophila simulans and D. melanogaster, using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We find that expression of 412 is highly variable in the soma, confirming previous findings based on Northern blots. No 412RNA is detected in the ovaries by either in situ(More)
The centrosome of Drosophila melanogaster cells cultured in vitro has been followed by immunofluorescence techniques with the Bx63 antibody of Frasch and Saumweber. After a heat shock, the centrosome labelling becomes very small and finally disappears after 30 min. Other heat-shock protein (hsp) inducers such as ethanol, arsenite and ecdysterone lead to the(More)
Hydrogen peroxide, which was shown to trigger the heat-shock response by activating the immediate binding of the heat-shock factor to DNA heat shock regulatory elements in the promoter of heat-shock genes of Drosophila cells, has also been reported to enhance the synthesis of actin. We show here that very short and transient H2O2 treatments, from 1 s to 2(More)
Drosophila cells of a clone derived from line Kc were treated with various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The concentration of 10 mM was lethal, whereas concentrations of 1-100 microM did not affect cell viability, rate of multiplication or protein synthesis. The intermediate concentration of 1 mM H2O2 was used to study the response of the(More)
The structural variants of the regulatory and coding regions of the LTR-retrotransposon 1731 are described. Two classes of genomic copies of retrotransposon 1731, with and without frameshifting strategy to express Gag and Pol proteins, were earlier revealed in the D. melanogaster genome. Copies without frameshifting are shown to be evolved from an ancient(More)
Transposable elements (TEs), represent a large fraction of the eukaryotic genome. In Drosophila melanogaster, about 20% of the genome corresponds to such middle repetitive DNA dispersed sequences. A fraction of TEs is composed of elements showing a retrovirus-like structure, the LTR-retrotransposons, the first TEs to be described in the Drosophila genome.(More)