Claude Gravel

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Neuropathic pain that occurs after peripheral nerve injury depends on the hyperexcitability of neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Spinal microglia stimulated by ATP contribute to tactile allodynia, a highly debilitating symptom of pain induced by nerve injury. Signalling between microglia and neurons is therefore an essential link in neuropathic(More)
Adult neuronal precursors retain the remarkable capacity to migrate long distances from the posterior (subventricular zone) to the most anterior [olfactory bulb (OB)] parts of the brain. The knowledge about the mechanisms that keep neuronal precursors in the migratory stream and organize this long-distance migration is incomplete. Here we show that blood(More)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological changes reminiscent of those occurring in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that a peptide caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxy-carbonyl-val-ala-asp-fluoromethyl ketone, or adenoviral gene transfer (AdV) of a protein caspase inhibitor,(More)
Retrograde and anterograde transport of tracers, electrophysiological recording, somatotopic mapping, and histochemical and immunological techniques have all revealed a parasagittal parcellation of the cerebellar cortex, including its efferent and many of its afferent connections. In order to establish whether the different compartments share a common(More)
During early postnatal development, a widespread ipsilateral projection to the superior colliculus is secondarily restricted to a small topographically defined region by elimination of ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as the target-derived neurotrophic factor for retinal ganglion(More)
Monoclonal antibody mabQ113 recognizes a polypeptide antigen that, in the adult cerebellum, is confined to a subset of Purkinje cells that are clustered together to form parasagittal bands interposed by similar nonimmunoreactive bands. The Purkinje cell compartments are congruent with bands of climbing fibers projecting from subregions of the inferior(More)
Rat optic nerve (ON) transection leads to mainly apoptotic cell death of about 85% of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population within 14 days after lesion. In the present study, we tested the effect of adenovirally delivered CNTF (Ad-CNTF) on survival and regeneration of axotomized adult RGCs in vivo. Single intravitreal Ad-CNTF injection led to stable(More)
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily produced by retinal pigment epithelial cells in the developing and adult retina. In vitro, it induces neuronal differentiation of retinoblastoma cells and promotes survival of cerebellar granule neurons. The pedf gene is closely linked to an autosomal-dominant(More)
Despite good initial success in vivo, gene transfer using first-generation replication-defective adenovirus has been reported to lead to transient reporter gene expression and to trigger inflammatory reactions in various organs and animal models. To gain more knowledge on this phenomenon, immune reactions were investigated following in vivo transfection of(More)
While reactive microgliosis is a hallmark of advanced stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the role of microglial cells in events initiating and/or precipitating disease onset is largely unknown. Here we provide novel in vivo evidence of a distinct adaptive shift in functional microglial phenotypes in preclinical stages of superoxide dismutase 1(More)