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Neuropathic pain that occurs after peripheral nerve injury depends on the hyperexcitability of neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Spinal microglia stimulated by ATP contribute to tactile allodynia, a highly debilitating symptom of pain induced by nerve injury. Signalling between microglia and neurons is therefore an essential link in neuropathic(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) has been shown to be impaired in mice deficient in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, as well as in a number of other knockout animals. Despite its power the gene-targeting approach is always fraught with the danger of looking at the cumulative direct and indirect effects of the absence of a particular gene(More)
Adult neuronal precursors retain the remarkable capacity to migrate long distances from the posterior (subventricular zone) to the most anterior [olfactory bulb (OB)] parts of the brain. The knowledge about the mechanisms that keep neuronal precursors in the migratory stream and organize this long-distance migration is incomplete. Here we show that blood(More)
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces clinical, biochemical, and neuropathological changes reminiscent of those occurring in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we show that a peptide caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxy-carbonyl-val-ala-asp-fluoromethyl ketone, or adenoviral gene transfer (AdV) of a protein caspase inhibitor,(More)
Retrograde and anterograde transport of tracers, electrophysiological recording, somatotopic mapping, and histochemical and immunological techniques have all revealed a parasagittal parcellation of the cerebellar cortex, including its efferent and many of its afferent connections. In order to establish whether the different compartments share a common(More)
Previous studies demonstrated that transgenic mice overexpressing human neurofilament heavy (hNF-H) protein develop a progressive motor neuron disease characterized by the perikaryal accumulations of neurofilaments resembling those found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To further investigate this neurofilament-induced pathology, we generated(More)
Rat optic nerve (ON) transection leads to mainly apoptotic cell death of about 85% of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population within 14 days after lesion. In the present study, we tested the effect of adenovirally delivered CNTF (Ad-CNTF) on survival and regeneration of axotomized adult RGCs in vivo. Single intravitreal Ad-CNTF injection led to stable(More)
Quantitative electron microscopy has been used to study the number of callosal axons in the corpus callosum of normal and hypothyroid rats during postnatal development. At birth, the normal corpus callosum contains 4.4 x 10(6) axons. This number increases to 11.4 x 10(6) by 5 days of age (P5) and then, in contrast to cats and primates, remains constant(More)
During early postnatal development, a widespread ipsilateral projection to the superior colliculus is secondarily restricted to a small topographically defined region by elimination of ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as the target-derived neurotrophic factor for retinal ganglion(More)
Focal axonal swellings are characteristic of a wide range of neuropathies. Three neuron-specific monoclonal antibodies have been used to identify focal axonal swellings in the normal developing rat cerebellar cortex. Between 7 and 15 days postnatal, swellings are a common feature of the granular layer and white matter tracts. Using a Purkinje cell-specific(More)