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OBJECTIVE This study seeks to determine the magnitude, nature, and correlates of social exchange of cigarettes among youth who smoke. DESIGN Cross sectional survey. SETTING Schools in 29 Minnesota communities. PARTICIPANTS All students in grades 8, 9, and 10 (ages 13-16 years) in each participating school. The parent/child response rate for the survey(More)
This represents the first stage of " research in progress " into the construct definition and validation of the mental toughness construct. The study evaluated the construct validity of responses to Loehr's (1986) mental toughness test, the Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI), by 263 student-athletes from an elite sports high school. As confirmatory(More)
What is mental toughness? This research draws on the experience of elite athletes and coaches to unearth a conceptualisation and definition of mental toughness. The interviews of 33 elite athletes and coaches (including 25 current or former elite athletes, of whom 15 had achieved an Olympic Gold Medal or World Champion status) were transcribed verbatim and(More)
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