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Brain imaging techniques allow the in vivo evaluation of the human brain, leading to a better understanding of its anatomical, functional and metabolic substrate. The aim of this current report is to present a systematic and critical review of neuroimaging findings in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A literature review was performed in the PubMed Medline,(More)
In social anxiety disorder (SAD), impairments in limbic/paralimbic structures are associated with emotional dysregulation and inhibition of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Little is known, however, about alterations in limbic and frontal regions associated with the integrated morphometric, functional, and structural architecture of SAD. Whether altered(More)
OBJECTIVE The last decade has seen increasing evidence of dysfunctions in the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia and of its relationship with the typical cognitive impairment of the disorder. Studies in animal models, healthy volunteers, and psychotic patients clearly suggest an antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol. This study investigated(More)
OBJECTIVE Specific phobia (SP) is characterized by irrational fear associated with avoidance of specific stimuli. In recent years, neuroimaging techniques have been used in an attempt to better understand the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of articles that used neuroimaging techniques to(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported a variety of brain abnormalities in association with schizophrenia. These include a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), which is consistent with a neurodevelopmental model for this disorder. In this meta-analytic review, we describe and discuss the main CSP MRI findings in schizophrenia(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are exaggeratedly concerned about approval and disapproval by others. Therefore, we assessed the recognition of facial expressions by individuals with SAD, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of previous studies. METHODS The sample was formed by 231 individuals (78(More)
The hypothesis that schizophrenia involves aberrant inter-hemispheric communication has a long pedigree, however its precise role remains unclear. We therefore report the case of a total agenesis of the corpus callosum in a 21-year-old man with childhood-onset schizophrenia. The presence of schizophrenia with very early onset on absence of corpus callosum(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have reported a variety of brain abnormalities in association with schizophrenia. These include a higher prevalence of an absent adhesio interthalamica (AI; also known massa intermedia), a gray matter junction that is present between the two thalami in approximately 80% of healthy subjects. In this meta-analytic(More)
Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis sativa constituent, may present a pharmacological profile similar to mood stabilizing drugs, in addition to anti-oxidative and neuroprotective properties. The present study aims to directly investigate the effects of CBD in an animal model of mania induced by D-amphetamine (D-AMPH). In the first model (reversal treatment), rats(More)
OBJECTIVE Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive in vivo method used to quantify metabolites that are relevant to a wide range of brain processes. This paper briefly describes neuroimaging using MRS and provides a systematic review of its application to anxiety disorders. METHOD A literature review was performed in the PubMed, Lilacs and(More)