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Although the functions of chemokines in the regulation of immune processes have been studied in some detail, the role of these biomolecules in cancer is not fully understood. Chemokines mediate migration of immune cells and other functions related to immunity. They are also involved in oncogenesis and in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis through(More)
INTRODUCTION Flank incisions may be associated with incisional flank hernias, which may progress to incarceration and strangulation. Compromised integrity of the abdominal and intercostal musculature due to previous surgery may be associated with herniation of abdominal contents into the intercostal space. There have been six previously reported cases of(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of anal carcinoma has increased over the last few decades especially in African Americans (AA) despite the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Here, we retrospectively review oncologic outcomes of AA patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without HIV to further examine the cause of this trend. (More)
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