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AIMS To compare the assessment of steroid hormone receptor immunohistochemistry by eye and by computer-aided image analysis, and to examine their relationships with survival in breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS Allred scores and weighted histoscores for oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) immunohistochemistry were determined by eye(More)
AIMS To compare visual and computerized image analysis of HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 status, and to examine the relationships with outcome in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS Tissue microarrays for 431 breast cancer patients were used to compare(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4 (S1P(4)) is expressed and stimulates the ERK-1/2 pathway via a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-dependent mechanism in oestrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. METHODS Clinical relevance of S1P(4) and sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1, which(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that the local and systemic inflammatory responses are associated with survival in oesophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tumour necrosis, tumour proliferation, local and systemic inflammation and microvessel density and survival in patients undergoing potentially curative(More)
BACKGROUND Immunohistochemistry of Ki-67 protein is widely used to assess tumour proliferation, and is an established prognostic factor in breast cancer. There is interest in automating the assessment of Ki-67 labelling index (LI) with possible benefits in handling increased workload, with improved accuracy and precision. PATIENTS AND METHODS Visual and(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer-associated inflammation is increasingly recognised to be an important determinant of oncological outcome. In colorectal cancer, the presence of peri-tumoural inflammatory/lymphocytic infiltrates predicts improved survival. To date, these infiltrates, assessed visually on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections, have failed to enter(More)
Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) including lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion is a critical step in cancer metastasis. In breast cancer, the optimal detection method of LBVI remains unclear. This research aimed to compare the prognostic value of different assessments of the LVI and BVI in patients with early breast cancer. The study cohort(More)
BACKGROUND Cell line models suggest that activation of NFκB is associated with progression of prostate cancer. This pathway may be a therapeutic target if these observations translate to clinical specimens. METHODS Immunohistochemistry measured NFκBp65 (p65), NFκBp65 nuclear localisation signal (NLS), NFκBp65 phosphorylated at ser 276 (p65(ser276)),(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence has implicated the MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway with the development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We have previously reported gene amplification of critical members of this pathway with the development of castrate-resistant disease. In addition, we have shown that rising Raf-1 expression, with the development of(More)
Sphingosine kinase is an enzyme that catalyses the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine 1-phosphate. Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a bioactive lipid, which has been shown to have an important role in promoting the survival, growth and invasiveness of cancer cells. Sphingosine 1-phosphate binds to five different plasma membrane sphingosine(More)