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BACKGROUND We previously reported that sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4 (S1P(4)) is expressed and stimulates the ERK-1/2 pathway via a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-dependent mechanism in oestrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. METHODS Clinical relevance of S1P(4) and sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1, which(More)
AIMS To compare the assessment of steroid hormone receptor immunohistochemistry by eye and by computer-aided image analysis, and to examine their relationships with survival in breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS Allred scores and weighted histoscores for oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) immunohistochemistry were determined by eye(More)
AIMS To compare visual and computerized image analysis of HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 status, and to examine the relationships with outcome in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS Tissue microarrays for 431 breast cancer patients were used to compare(More)
Various studies in cell lines have previously demonstrated that sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) interact in an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent manner to influence both breast cancer cell growth and migration. A cohort of 304 ER-positive breast cancer patients was used to investigate the prognostic(More)
Lymphovascular invasion (LBVI) including lymphatic (LVI) and blood (BVI) vessel invasion is a critical step in cancer metastasis. In breast cancer, the optimal detection method of LBVI remains unclear. This research aimed to compare the prognostic value of different assessments of the LVI and BVI in patients with early breast cancer. The study cohort(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing evidence that the local and systemic inflammatory responses are associated with survival in oesophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tumour necrosis, tumour proliferation, local and systemic inflammation and microvessel density and survival in patients undergoing potentially curative(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether Src family kinases (SFK) are expressed in renal cell cancer and to assess their prognostic significance. METHODS mRNA expression levels were investigated for the 8 SFK members by quantitative real-time PCR in 19 clear cell cancer tissue samples. Immunohistochemical staining was utilised to assess(More)
BACKGROUND Immunohistochemistry of Ki-67 protein is widely used to assess tumour proliferation, and is an established prognostic factor in breast cancer. There is interest in automating the assessment of Ki-67 labelling index (LI) with possible benefits in handling increased workload, with improved accuracy and precision. PATIENTS AND METHODS Visual and(More)
We previously reported that AR phosphorylation at serine 213 was associated with poor outcome and may contribute to prostate cancer development and progression. This study investigates if specific AR phosphorylation sites have differing roles in the progression of hormone naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) to castrate resistant disease (CRPC). A panel of(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer-associated inflammation is increasingly recognised to be an important determinant of oncological outcome. In colorectal cancer, the presence of peri-tumoural inflammatory/lymphocytic infiltrates predicts improved survival. To date, these infiltrates, assessed visually on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections, have failed to enter(More)