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Memory for visually presented items is impaired by speech that is played as an irrelevant background. The paper presents the view that changing state of the auditory material is an important prerequisite for this disruption. Four experiments studied the effects of sounds varying in complexity in an attempt to establish which features of changing state in(More)
The association between administered estrogen and performance on verbal memory and other cognitive tasks was examined. Male-to-female transsexuals undergoing estrogen treatment for sex reassignment (n = 29) scored higher on Paired Associate Learning (PAL) compared to a similar transsexual control group, awaiting estrogen treatment (n = 30) (P < 0.05). No(More)
Gonadal hormones, particularly estrogens, have been suggested to influence memory and cognitive tasks that show sex differences. Previously, we reported that male-to-female (M-F) transsexuals undergoing estrogen treatment for sex re-assignment scored higher on verbal Paired Associate Learning (PAL) than a transsexual control group awaiting estrogen(More)
This series of experiments was performed to verify Cowan and Barron's (1987) reported effect of auditory color-word interference on a visual Stroop task. Extant theory predicts effects of irrelevant speech on visual memory tasks involving immediate, ordered recall of the items. Interference between the two sources of information (visual and auditory) is(More)
BACKGROUND Current methodological guidelines provide advice about the assessment of sub-group analysis within RCTs, but do not specify explicit criteria for assessment. Our objective was to provide researchers with a set of criteria that will facilitate the grading of evidence for moderators, in systematic reviews. METHOD We developed a set of criteria(More)
The interactive effects of mood induction and alcohol consumption were examined in a combined visual digit detection and tracking task. Although tracking ability was independently sensitive to both time on task and alcohol, no interaction between alcohol and mood was observed. However, correct reaction times on the digit detection task were sensitive to(More)
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