Clare M. Waterman

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Cell adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM) are necessary for morphogenesis, immunity and wound healing. Focal adhesions are multifunctional organelles that mediate cell-ECM adhesion, force transmission, cytoskeletal regulation and signalling. Focal adhesions consist of a complex network of trans-plasma-membrane integrins and cytoplasmic proteins that(More)
Directed cell migration is a physical process that requires dramatic changes in cell shape and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. For efficient movement, these processes must be spatiotemporally coordinated. To a large degree, the morphological changes and physical forces that occur during migration are generated by a dynamic filamentous actin (F-actin)(More)
How focal adhesions (FAs) convert retrograde filamentous actin (F-actin) flow into traction stress on the extracellular matrix to drive cell migration is unknown. Using combined traction force and fluorescent speckle microscopy, we observed a robust biphasic relationship between F-actin speed and traction force. F-actin speed is inversely related to(More)
Focal adhesions (FAs) are mechanosensitive adhesion and signaling complexes that grow and change composition in response to myosin II-mediated cytoskeletal tension in a process known as FA maturation. To understand tension-mediated FA maturation, we sought to identify proteins that are recruited to FAs in a myosin II-dependent manner and to examine the(More)
Focal adhesions undergo myosin-II-mediated maturation wherein they grow and change composition to modulate integrin signalling for cell migration, growth and differentiation. To determine how focal adhesion composition is affected by myosin II activity, we performed proteomic analysis of isolated focal adhesions and compared protein abundance in focal(More)
In migrating cells, integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs) assemble in protruding lamellipodia in association with rapid filamentous actin (F-actin) assembly and retrograde flow. How dynamic F-actin is coupled to FA is not known. We analyzed the role of vinculin in integrating F-actin and FA dynamics by vinculin gene disruption in primary fibroblasts.(More)
Understanding molecular-scale architecture of cells requires determination of 3D locations of specific proteins with accuracy matching their nanometer-length scale. Existing electron and light microscopy techniques are limited either in molecular specificity or resolution. Here, we introduce interferometric photoactivated localization microscopy (iPALM),(More)
Cell migration toward areas of higher extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity via a process called "durotaxis" is thought to contribute to development, immune response, and cancer metastasis. To understand how cells sample ECM rigidity to guide durotaxis, we characterized cell-generated forces on the nanoscale within single mature integrin-based focal adhesions(More)
Cell adhesion and migration crucially depend on the transmission of actomyosin-generated forces through sites of focal adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Here we report experimental and computational advances in improving the resolution and reliability of traction force microscopy. First, we introduce the use of two differently colored nanobeads as(More)
The mitotic kinesin centromere protein E (CENP-E) is an essential kinetochore component that directly contributes to the capture and stabilization of spindle microtubules by kinetochores. Although reduction in CENP-E leads to high rates of whole chromosome missegregation, neither its properties as a microtubule-dependent motor nor how it contributes to the(More)