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Three separate experiments in lean subjects confirmed that a 1.52-MJ (362-kcal) carbohydrate supplement at breakfast suppressed appetite 90 min later but had no effect on a test meal given after 270 min. A 1.52-MJ (362-kcal) fat supplement produced no detectable action on measures of appetite at any time point. Therefore, fat and carbohydrate do not have(More)
Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of(More)
The human appetite system contains central and peripheral mechanisms that interact with environmental features, especially with the physical and nutrient composition of the food supply. Foods varying in nutrient composition exert different physiologic effects, some of which function as satiety signals. High-fat diets (low food quotient) lead to high levels(More)
The present study assessed the capacity of both high fat and high carbohydrate (CHO) foods to lead to overconsumption in 12 obese women (mean BMI = 42 kg/m2). Subjects were provided with either a low (527 kcal) or high (985 kcal) energy meal at midday. Energy intake was then measured in a later ad libitum dinner meal in which subjects ate from a range of(More)
Weight management is a dynamic process, with a pre-treatment phase, a treatment (including process) phase and post-treatment maintenance, and where relapse is possible during both the treatment and maintenance. Variability in the statistical power of the studies concerned, heterogeneity in the definitions, the complexity of obesity and treatment success,(More)
BACKGROUND Daily consumption of Concord grape juice (CGJ) over 3-4 mo has been shown to improve memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment and reduce blood pressure in hypertensive adults. These benefits likely result from the high concentration of polyphenols in CGJ. Increased stress can impair cognitive function and elevate blood pressure.(More)
Over 35 years of research suggests that endogenous hypothalamic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) plays an important part in within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety processes. Thus, the serotonin system has provided a viable target for weight control, critical to the action of at least two effective anti-obesity treatments, both producing clinically(More)
There is an increasing body of research investigating whether abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with cognitive impairments, the evidence from which is equivocal. A systematic search of the literature identified twenty-three studies which assessed either clinically defined impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or variance in glucose tolerance within the(More)
The pivotal role of 5-HT in the control of appetite was formally proposed nearly 30 years ago. In particular endogenous hypothalamic 5-HT has been implicated in the processes of within meal satiation and the end state of post meal satiety. Of the numerous 5-HT receptor subtypes currently identified, 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors are believed to mediate(More)