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Cytology and histology records and cervical samples for HPV assay were obtained from a prospective cohort of 49 655 women attending clinics for routine cervical cytology in or near Manchester between 1988 and 1993. The women were followed up for cytological abnormality and neoplasia through the cytology laboratory's records. HPV at entry was assayed in an(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that the reduction in mortality achieved by the UK national cervical screening programme is too small to justify its financial and psychosocial costs, except perhaps in a few high-risk women. METHODS We analysed trends in mortality before 1988, when the British national screening programme was launched, to estimate what(More)
Rare inactivating mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, TP53 and CHEK2 confer relative risks for breast cancer between about 2 and more than 10, but more common variants in these genes are generally considered of little or no clinical significance. Under the polygenic model for breast cancer carriers of multiple low-penetrance alleles are at high risk, but few(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that reduced exposure to common infections in the first year of life increases the risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Design and setting The United Kingdom childhood cancer study (UKCCS) is a large population based case-control study of childhood cancer across 10 regions of the UK. PARTICIPANTS 6305 children(More)
OBJECTIVES Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of(More)
To evaluate the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening. This was a cross-sectional study from the recruitment phase of a prospective randomised trial. Women were screened for HPV in addition to routine cervical cytology testing. Greater Manchester, attendees at routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In all, 24(More)
BACKGROUND In four randomised trials, human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening for cervical cancer was compared with cytology-based cervical screening, and precursors of cancer were the endpoint in every trial. However, direct estimates are missing of the relative efficacy of HPV-based versus cytology-based screening for prevention of invasive cancer in(More)
We obtained lifetime occupational and residential histories by telephone interview with 622 mesothelioma patients (512 men, 110 women) and 1420 population controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were converted to lifetime risk (LR) estimates for Britons born in the 1940s. Male ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) relative to low-risk occupations for >10 years of exposure(More)
In a prospective, unmatched case-control study of sporadic Shiga toxin (Vero cytotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) infection in England, exposure to the farming environment emerged strongly as a risk factor (adjusted odds ratio = 2.45; 95% confidence intervals = 1.49-4.02; p=0.0004) posing further challenges and opportunities for prevention.
BACKGROUND The geographical distribution of tuberculosis in England and Wales and changes since 1983 were examined using data from the 1988 and 1993 national surveys of tuberculosis notifications. METHODS Notification rates for England and Wales in 1988 and 1993 were calculated for geographical areas using Office for National Statistics (ONS) mid year(More)