Clare E. Schmidt

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A method for the production of embryonic stem (ES) cell-embryo chimeras was developed that involves the simple coculture of eight-cell embryos on a lawn of ES cells. After coculture, the embryos with ES cells attached are transferred to normal embryo culture medium and allowed to develop to the blastocyst stage before reimplantation into foster mothers.(More)
BACKGROUND While nicotine is the primary addictive compound in tobacco, other tobacco constituents including minor alkaloids (e.g., nornicotine, anabasine) may also contribute to tobacco addiction by mimicking or enhancing the effects of nicotine. Further evaluating the behavioral effects of minor alkaloids is essential for understanding their impact on(More)
Development of medications that attenuate symptoms of nicotine withdrawal may be useful for facilitating smoking cessation. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXY) decreases withdrawal signs and other addiction-related effects of several drugs of abuse in animals, but has not been examined in a preclinical model of nicotine addiction. The goal of this study was to(More)
The ability of nicotine to induce dependence (result in a withdrawal syndrome) is typically thought to require long-term, daily smoking. Emerging evidence suggests that symptoms of nicotine withdrawal may occur following only a few cigarettes. Whether acute exposure to nicotine can induce dependence in animals has not been well established. The objective of(More)
We have recently shown that the Ca2+ dependent cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin is encoded by a single gene, localized on mouse chromosome 8. Here we describe the organization of the uvomorulin gene and give an initial characterization of the uvomorulin promoter. Uvomorulin is encoded by 16 exons, which are distributed over a region of more than 40 kb(More)
Drug-evoked plasticity at excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) drives behavioral adaptations in addiction. MSNs expressing dopamine D1 (D1R-MSN) vs. D2 receptors (D2R-MSN) can exert antagonistic effects in drug-related behaviors, and display distinct alterations in glutamate signaling following repeated exposure(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine what benefits to the employer and to society are associated with influenza (flu) vaccination in healthy adults. DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a literature review concerning cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness evaluations of influenza vaccination in healthy, working-age adults. Up to the end of 1999, we found 6 published economic(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical models are needed to inform regulation of tobacco products by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Typically, animal models of tobacco addiction involve exposure to nicotine alone or nicotine combined with isolated tobacco constituents (e.g. minor alkaloids). The goal of this study was to develop a model using extracts derived from(More)
Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco(More)