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Since first being described in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have proven to be of great interest to immunologists and investigators interested in the molecular basis to inflammation. They recognize pathogen-derived factors and also products of inflamed tissue, and trigger signaling pathways that lead to activation of(More)
Germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense microbial or endogenous products released from damaged or dying cells and trigger innate immunity. In most cases, sensing of these signals is coupled to signal transduction pathways that lead to transcription of immune response genes that combat infection or lead to cell death. Members of the(More)
LPS signals through a membrane bound-complex of the lipid binding protein MD-2 and the receptor TLR4. In this study we identify discrete regions in both MD-2 and TLR4 that are required for signaling by lipid IVa, an LPS derivative that is an agonist in horse but an antagonist in humans. We show that changes in the electrostatic surface potential of both(More)
Prostaglandins have a central role in many endocrine functions in mammals, including regulation of the life span of the corpus luteum by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE), which are secreted by the uterine endometrium. However, the uterus is readily infected with bacteria such as Escherichia coli, which disrupt luteolysis. Immune(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is produced by Gram-negative bacteria, is a powerful activator of innate immune responses. LPS binds to the proteins Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD2 to activate pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. The TLR4-MD2 receptor complex is crucial for the host recognition of Gram-negative bacterial infection, and pathogens have(More)
Escherichia coli infection of the endometrium causes uterine disease after parturition and is associated with prolonged luteal phases of the ovarian cycle in cattle. Termination of the luteal phase is initiated by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF) from oxytocin-stimulated endometrial epithelial cells. Compared with normal animals, the peripheral plasma of(More)
Oestrogens are pivotal in ovarian follicular growth, development and function, with fundamental roles in steroidogenesis, nurturing the oocyte and ovulation. Infections with bacteria such as Escherichia coli cause infertility in mammals at least in part by perturbing ovarian follicle function, characterised by suppression of oestradiol production. Ovarian(More)
BACKGROUND Contamination of the uterine lumen with bacteria is ubiquitous in cattle after parturition. Some animals develop endometritis and have reduced fertility but others have no uterine disease and readily conceive. The present study tested the hypothesis that postpartum cattle that develop persistent endometritis and infertility are unable to limit(More)
In this study we generated a novel dual specific phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) deletion mouse using a targeted deletion strategy in order to examine the role of MAP kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2) in immune responses. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a rapid, time and concentration-dependent increase in MKP-2 protein expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages from(More)
Signal transduction by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to host defence against many pathogenic microorganisms and also underlies a large burden of human disease. Thus, the mechanisms and regulation of signalling by TLRs are of considerable interest. In this Review, we discuss the molecular basis for the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular(More)