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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Inflammation contributes to pancreatic beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4 ligands are increased systemically in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, and TLR2- and TLR4-deficient mice are protected from the metabolic consequences of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the role of macrophages(More)
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) aggregates to form amyloid fibrils in patients with type 2 diabetes and acts as a potent stimulus for interleukin (IL)-1β secretion by bone marrow-derived macrophages. We sought to determine the contribution of resident islet macrophages to IAPP-induced inflammation and β-cell dysfunction. In cultured islets, macrophages(More)
Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is important for normal β-cell function. Disruption of cholesterol transport by decreased function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCA1 results in impaired insulin secretion. Mice lacking β-cell ABCA1 have increased islet expression of ABCG1, another cholesterol transporter implicated in β-cell function. To(More)
Islets from patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit β cell dysfunction, amyloid deposition, macrophage infiltration, and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We sought to determine whether human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the main component of islet amyloid, might contribute to islet inflammation by recruiting and(More)
BACKGROUND Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes; however, most islet grafts fail within 5 years. Innate immunity has been suggested to play a role in islet allograft rejection, potentially mediated by toll-like receptors (TLRs), a class of innate immune receptors. Lack of TLR4, in particular, has been reported to improve(More)
Amyloid forms within pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes from aggregates of the β-cell peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). These aggregates are toxic to β-cells, inducing β-cell death and dysfunction, as well as inciting islet inflammation. The β-cell is subject to a number of other stressors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia, that may(More)
The global health and economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached staggering proportions. Current projections estimate that 592 million people will have diabetes by 2035. T2D-which comprises 90% of cases-is a complex disease, in most cases resulting from a combination of predisposing genes and an unhealthy environment. Clinical onset of the disease(More)
In addition to several other extracellular substances, phagocytosis of amyloid-forming peptides can perturb cellular homeostasis, leading to activation of the cytoplasmic innate immune receptor NLRP3. Once triggered, NLRP3 forms an inflammasome complex that ultimately cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 into their mature, secreted forms. Here we describe a(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) to form amyloid contributes to beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Human but not non-amyloidogenic rodent IAPP induces islet macrophage proIL-1β synthesis. We evaluated the effect of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) on islet inflammation and dysfunction in a mouse model of type 2(More)
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is up-regulated by glucose and diabetes and plays a critical role in glucotoxicity, inflammation, and beta-cell apoptosis, whereas we have found that TXNIP deficiency protects against diabetes. Interestingly, human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is also induced by glucose, aggregates into insoluble amyloid fibrils(More)