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OBJECTIVE The levator hiatus defines the 'hernial portal' through which female pelvic organ prolapse develops. Hiatal area may therefore be an independent etiological factor for this condition. In this retrospective study we defined 'normality' for hiatal area by assessing its relationship with symptoms and clinical signs of prolapse. METHODS Datasets of(More)
OBJECTIVES Defecation proctography is the standard method used in the investigation of obstructed defecation. Translabial ultrasound has recently been shown to demonstrate rectocele, enterocele and rectal intussusception. We performed a comparative clinical study to determine agreement between the two methods. METHODS Thirty-seven women scheduled to(More)
OBJECTIVE Until recently, magnetic resonance was the only imaging method capable of assessing the levator ani in vivo. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound has recently been shown to be able to demonstrate the pubovisceral muscle. The aim of this study was to define the anatomy of the levator hiatus in young nulliparous women with the help of 3D ultrasound. (More)
In a retrospective study investigating the relationship between levator avulsion and clinical grading of levator ani muscle strength, we analyzed the 3D/4D translabial ultrasound and digital assessment data of 1,112 women seen in a tertiary Urogynecological clinic. Levator avulsion was diagnosed whenever the examiner was unable to palpate the insertion of(More)
OBJECTIVES The investigation of female pelvic floor biomechanics is attracting attention due to its importance in pelvic floor dysfunction and childbirth. To date, there are no established means of assessing pelvic floor elasticity. We propose the use of translabial ultrasound to estimate strain, one element of pubovisceral muscle elasticity. METHODS(More)
Levator ani muscle trauma is a common consequence of vaginal childbirth and detectable on digital vaginal palpation. To ascertain validity and reproducibility of this test, we saw 110 women for an interview, prolapse staging, digital vaginal palpation by two blinded examiners and four-dimensional translabial ultrasound. The mean age was 55.5 years (range(More)
Adequate staging of pelvic organ prolapse is important in clinical practice and research. The ability of the POPQ, ordinal stages and ultrasound prolapse assessment were evaluated for their ability to discriminate between women with and without prolapse symptoms. The leading edge of the predominant compartment in the three assessment systems was used for(More)
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