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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in transcriptional regulation and pathogenesis of cancer. Thus, HDAC inhibitors are candidate drugs for differentiation therapy of cancer. Here, we show that the well-tolerated antiepileptic drug valproic acid is a powerful HDAC inhibitor. Valproic acid relieves HDAC-dependent transcriptional repression and(More)
MicroRNAs play important roles in cell differentiation by acting as translational inhibitors of specific target genes. Here we show that human granulocytic differentiation is controlled by a regulatory circuitry involving miR-223 and two transcriptional factors, NFI-A and C/EBPalpha. The two factors compete for binding to the miR-223 promoter: NFI-A(More)
Hematopoietic transcription factors are involved in chromosomal translocations, which generate fusion proteins contributing to leukemia pathogenesis. Analysis of patient's primary leukemia blasts revealed that those carrying the t(8;21) generating AML1/ETO, the most common acute myeloid leukemia-associated fusion protein, display low levels of a(More)
Endogenous, nontelomeric reverse transcriptase (RT) is encoded by two classes of repeated elements: retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses. Expression of RT-coding genes is generally repressed in differentiated nonpathological tissues, yet is active in the mammalian germ line, embryonic tissues and tumor cells. Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside RT(More)
Epigenetic alterations of chromatin due to aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and transcriptional silencing of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) pathway are events linked to the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that can be targeted by specific treatments. A pilot study was carried out in eight refractory or high-risk AML patients not(More)
RAR and AML1 transcription factors are found in leukemias as fusion proteins with PML and ETO, respectively. Association of PML-RAR and AML1-ETO with the nuclear corepressor (N-CoR)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex is required to block hematopoietic differentiation. We show that PML-RAR and AML1-ETO exist in vivo within high molecular weight (HMW) nuclear(More)
t(8;21) is one of the most frequent chromosomal translocations occurring in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is considered the leukemia-initiating event. The biologic and clinical significance of microRNA dysregulation associated with AML1/ETO expressed in t(8;21) AML is unknown. Here, we show that AML1/ETO triggers the heterochromatic silencing of(More)
The transforming proteins of acute promyelocytic leukaemias (APL) are fusions of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) and the promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger (PLZF) proteins with retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha). These proteins retain the RARalpha DNA- and retinoic acid (RA)-binding domains, and their ability to block haematopoietic differentiation(More)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate transcription and specific cellular functions, such as tumor suppression by p53, and are frequently altered in cancer. Inhibitors of HDACs (HDACIs) possess antitumor activity and are well tolerated, supporting the idea that their use might develop as a specific strategy for cancer treatment. The molecular basis for(More)
Large-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies have been effective in unravelling the distribution of DNA-binding transcription factors along eukaryotic genomes, but specificity determinants remain elusive. Gene-regulatory regions display distinct histone variants and modifications (or marks). An attractive hypothesis is that these marks modulate(More)