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Speech production is one of the most fundamental activities of humans. A core cognitive operation involved in this skill is the retrieval of words from long-term memory, that is, from the mental lexicon. In this article, we establish the time course of lexical access by recording the brain electrical activity of participants while they named pictures aloud.(More)
Establishing when and how the human brain differentiates between object categories is key to understanding visual cognition. Event-related potential (ERP) investigations have led to the consensus that faces selectively elicit a negative wave peaking 170 ms after presentation, the 'N170'. In such experiments, however, faces are nearly always presented from a(More)
Most classical models of visual word recognition are based on sequentially organized levels of representation and involve feedback mechanisms to various extents. In this study, we aim at clarifying which of the early processing stages of visual word recognition are modulated by top-down lexical effects. We studied the identification of letters embedded in(More)
A key question in the study of bilingual functioning is whether both the languages known are active at all times or whether one language can be selectively inactivated when bilingual individuals are tuned to the other language. Psycholinguistic and neuroscientific investigations have provided inconsistent data regarding the level of semantic activation of(More)
The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP) studies have debated whether two peaks of activity - P1 and N170 - are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to(More)
According to the 'bilateral representation theory', a complete copy of the words presented foveally is received simultaneously in the left and right visual cortices. However, a growing body of observations, which has led to the 'split fovea theory', proposes a functional split of the foveal area between the two hemispheres. In the present study we tested(More)
During reading, monolingual readers actively predict upcoming words from sentence context. Here we investigated whether bilingual readers predict sentence final words when they read in their second language. We recorded event-related potentials while English monolinguals (L1 comprehenders) and late Spanish–English bilinguals (L2 comprehenders) read(More)
Several studies have documented the advantage of bilingualism with respect to the development of the executive control (EC) system. Two effects of bilingualism have been described in conflict resolution tasks: (a) bilinguals tend to perform the tasks faster overall, and (b) bilinguals tend to experience less interference from conflicting information,(More)
RATIONALE A number of lines of evidence suggest that a nicotinic cholinergic system is mediating attentional processing. However, the evidence is less clear for a nicotinic system being involved in mnemonic processing. OBJECTIVES The present study investigated the effects of nicotine on memory using a depth of processing paradigm. METHODS A double-blind(More)
Patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in face recognition memory that severely hamper their social skills. The functional mechanisms of these impairments remain unknown. According to the dual-process theory, recognition memory comprises two distinct components: recollection and familiarity. Studies using the Remember/Know procedure in(More)