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Extracellularly produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in plant development, but their significance for seed germination and seedling establishment is poorly understood. Here we report on the characteristics of extracellular ROS production during seed germination and early seedling development in Pisum sativum. Extracellular superoxide(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in seed death following dehydration in desiccation-intolerant 'recalcitrant' seeds. However, it is unknown if and how ROS are produced in the apoplast and if they play a role in stress signalling during desiccation. We studied intracellular damage and extracellular superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production upon(More)
The cellular and subcellular sites of angiotensin converting enzyme (kininase II) in lung tissue and endothelial cells in culture were examined by immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence techniques. Converting enzyme is capable of inactivating bradykinin and of converting angiotensin I to its potent lower homolog, angiotensin II. Immunocytochemistry at(More)
Goat antibodies to pig lung angiotensin-converting enzyme (kininase II) were conjugated to microperoxidase. Rat lung tissue, previously incubated with non-immune goat serum, was incubated with the antibody-microperoxidase conjugate and then with H2O2 and 3,3-diaminobenzidine. Electron microscopy revealed reaction product on the plasma membrane and caveolae(More)
Enzymes situated along the luminal surface of pulmonary endothelial cells interact with circulating solutes, notably with vasoactive substances, to regulate the hormonal composition of systemic arterial blood. However, it is becoming clear that the range and complexity of reactions occurring at or near the surface of endothelial cells are greater than(More)
Because kinins affect vascular tone, it is assumed that kinins act directly on smooth muscle. However, a direct interaction is difficult to conceive. Vessels containing smooth muscle are lined by a continuous endothelium with tight junctions. In addition, kinins act on endothelial cells to cause the release of prostaglandin-related substances; possibly(More)
The effect of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on granulocyte and platelet functions was assessed. No alteration of granulocyte viability, morphology, phagocytic ability, or bactericidal capacity was detected after incubation with 6 per cent HES at 25 C for two hours. Platelet morphology, size distribution, aggregation, nucleotide and serotonin release, and(More)
The activated coagulation time (ACT) is widely used to guide heparin and protamine dosing during cardiac surgery. A common protocol involves establishing a baseline ACT before administering heparin, then using this ACT as a target value for assessing the adequacy of heparin neutralization after cardiopulmonary bypass. Results vary in previous comparisons of(More)
The province of KwaZulu-Natal has the highest prevalence of HIV in South Africa, particularly among young women. In order to more closely examine the HIV prevalence and incidence in non-pregnant women from rural, semi-rural and urban areas, data from 5,753 women screened for enrolment into three HIV prevention studies were combined and analysed. The(More)