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The persistence of latently infected resting CD4+ T cells has been clearly demonstrated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral therapy. However, estimates of the half-life of this viral reservoir have been quite divergent. We demonstrate clear evidence for decay of this HIV reservoir in patients who(More)
The persistence of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells is considered to be a major obstacle in preventing the eradication of HIV-1 even in patients who have received effective antiviral therapy for an average duration of 5 years. Although previous studies have suggested that the latent HIV reservoir in the resting CD4+ T cell compartment is(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are important mediators of innate immunity that act mainly through secretion of interferon (IFN)-alpha. Previous studies have found that these cells can suppress HIV in vitro; additionally, pDCs have been shown to be severely reduced in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals. In the present study, we sought to(More)
Persistence of the latent viral reservoir has been recognized as a major obstacle to eradicating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. It has been suggested that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) may purge HIV in the latent viral reservoir. However, the effect of HDACis on the degree and extent of(More)
The virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses of 21 HIV-infected patients were studied including a unique cohort of long-term nonprogressors with low levels of plasma viral RNA and strong proliferative responses to HIV Ags. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were studied by a combination of standard cytotoxic T cell (CTL) assays, MHC tetramers, and TCR(More)
Residual plasma viremia (<50 copies/mL) persists in certain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the relationship between the degree of residual plasma viremia, the size of HIV reservoirs, and the level of immune activation has not been delineated. Here, we demonstrate that residual plasma(More)
True long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs)/elite controllers (ECs) maintain durable control over HIV replication without antiretroviral therapy. Herein we describe 4 unique persons who were distinct from conventional LTNPs/ECs in that they had extraordinarily low HIV burdens and comparatively weak immune responses. As a group, typical LTNPs/ECs have(More)
It has been demonstrated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication persists in most infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, studies addressing the relationship between low levels of ongoing viral replication and immuno-logic parameters, such as the CD4 + : CD8 + T cell ratio, in such(More)
If future HIV vaccine design strategies are to succeed, improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying protection from infection or immune control over HIV replication remains essential. Increased cytotoxic capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells associated with efficient elimination of HIV-infected CD4+ T-cell targets has been shown to distinguish(More)
Although the study of non-human primates has resulted in important advances for understanding HIV-specific immunity, a clear correlate of immune control over simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication has not been found to date. In this study, CD8(+) T-cell cytotoxic capacity was examined to determine whether this function is a correlate of immune(More)