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The aim of this study was to compare the intra-cyclic velocity graphs of breaststroke swimmers at two skill levels in relation to their movement phases. Two groups of nine male swimmers were videotaped underwater at three swimming race paces corresponding to their actual competitive times for the 200-m, 100-m and 50-m breaststroke. Their forward(More)
BACKGROUND The diving response includes cardiovascular adjustments known to decrease oxygen uptake and thus prolong apnea duration. As this diving response is in part characterized by a pronounced decrease in heart rate (HR), it is thought to be vagally mediated. METHODS In five professional breath-hold divers (BHDs) and five less-trained controls (CTL),(More)
Triathletes and elite breath-hold divers show an adaptive response to hypoxia induced by repeated epochs of breath holding. We hypothesized that hypoxic training could also improve swimming coordination. Before and after a 3-month breath-hold training program, 4 male swimmers performed a maximal incremental test on bicycle and a 50-m front crawl race at(More)
EDITORIAL 1 Identification of material parameters through inverse finite element modelling / Sam Evans, Stephane Avril 3 Identification of the material parameters of soft tissues in the compressed leg / L. Dubuis, S. Avril, J. Debayle, P. Badel 13 The non-linear response of a muscle in transverse compression: assessment of geometry influence using a finite(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish the relation between handball playing, passive hip range of motion (ROM), and the development of radiological hip osteoarthritis (OA) in former elite handball players. Two related issues are addressed: (a) the relation between long term elite handball playing and the incidence of hip OA; (b) the relations between hip ROM, OA, and(More)
The gait variables of 10 swimmers, 10 basketball players, and 16 soccer players were compared. They were all male and right-handed. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in age, weight and height. Spatial and temporal gait variables were measured with the Bessou gait analyzer. In the swimmers group, the gait variables of the right(More)
The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about degenerative and repair process of articular cartilage, and relationship between osteoarthritis and physical activities. Data Pubmed, ScienceDirect data base are interrogated for the period 1994 - 2003. Key words are: cartilage, osteoarthritis, exercise, rehabilitation. The mechanical biology of(More)
Maximal or peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max and V˙O2 peak , respectively) are commonly measured during graded exercise tests (GXTs) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), to prescribe exercise intensity and/or to evaluate the effects of training. However, direct measurement of CRF requires a GXT to volitional exhaustion, which may not always be well(More)
PURPOSE Achievement of athletes' performances is related to several factors including physiological, environmental and institutional cycles where physical characteristics are involved. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance achieved in professional sprint and middle-distance running events (100 m to 1500 m) depending on the organization(More)
This study analyzed the relationship between breathing pattern and arm coordination symmetry in 11 expert male swimmers who performed the front crawl at their 100-m race pace using seven randomized breathing patterns. Two indexes of coordination (IdCP and IdCNP) and a symmetry index (SI) based on the difference of IdCP - IdCNP were calculated. IdCP(More)