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MDA5, a viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) receptor, shares sequence similarity and signaling pathways with RIG-I yet plays essential functions in antiviral immunity through distinct specificity for viral RNA. Revealing the molecular basis for the functional divergence, we report here the crystal structure of MDA5 bound to dsRNA, which shows how, using the(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the efficacy of the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (EtxB) in the treatment of ocular autoimmune disease. Murine experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is an animal model of autoimmune posterior uveitis initiated by retinal antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 CD4(+) T cells, which activate myeloid cells, inducing(More)
Receptor interaction protein kinase 1 (RIP1) is a molecular cell-fate switch. RIP1, together with Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) and caspase-8, forms the RIPoptosome that activates apoptosis. RIP1 also associates with RIP3 to form the necrosome that triggers necroptosis. The RIPoptosome assembles through interactions between the death(More)
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