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BACKGROUND There is evidence that sleep is important for memory consolidation, but the underlying neuronal changes are not well understood. We studied the effect of sleep modulation on memory and on neuronal activity in a memory system of the domestic chick brain after the learning process of imprinting. Neurons in this system become, through imprinting,(More)
Classical synaptic transmission occurs at active zones within the synaptic cleft, but increasing evidence suggests that vesicle fusion can also occur outside of these zones, releasing transmitter directly into the extrasynaptic space. The role of such "ectopic" release is unclear, but in the cerebellar molecular layer it is thought to guide the processes of(More)
Drugs targeting atrial-specific ion channels, Kv1.5 or Kir3.1/3.4, are being developed as new therapeutic strategies for atrial fibrillation. However, current preclinical studies carried out in non-cardiac cell lines or animal models may not accurately represent the physiology of a human cardiomyocyte (CM). In the current study, we tested whether human(More)
BACKGROUND Constipation is a common childhood symptom and abdominal radiography is advocated in diagnosis and management. OBJECTIVE To assess the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of the Barr and Blethyn systems for quantifying constipation on abdominal radiographs in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS Radiographs were scored by three observers of(More)
Overexpression of the oncogene HER2 occurs in 20-30% of invasive breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. A number of different splice variants of HER2 have been identified which produce functionally different proteins. Previously these splice variants have been investigated separately, but in the present study we collectively look at the(More)
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-2) occurs in 20-30% of breast cancers and confers survival and proliferative advantages on the tumour cells making HER-2 an ideal therapeutic target for drugs like Herceptin. Continued delineation of tumour biology has identified splice variants of HER-2, with contrasting roles in tumour cell(More)
In the rat cerebellar molecular layer, spillover of glutamate between parallel fibre synapses can lead to activation of perisynaptic receptors that mediate short- and long-term plasticity. This effect is greatest when clusters of fibres are stimulated at high frequencies, suggesting that glutamate clearance mechanisms must be overwhelmed before spillover(More)
BACKGROUND Long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellum is a recently described and poorly characterized form of synaptic plasticity. The induction mechanism for LTP at this synapse is considered reciprocal to "classical" LTP at hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: kinases promote increased trafficking of AMPA(More)
BACKGROUND It has been suggested that there is an association between simple arch fingerprint patterns and severe childhood constipation. If real, this association might be useful to predict which children have a poor prognosis. AIM To see how many severely constipated children have simple arches, compared to non-constipated controls and their first(More)