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BACKGROUND In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about(More)
INTRODUCTION Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased among youth in recent decades, accounting for approximately 13% of total calories consumed. The Boston Public Schools passed a policy restricting sale of sugar-sweetened beverages in Boston schools in June 2004. The objective of this study was to determine whether high school students'(More)
The timely restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that facilitates the migration of preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes, which occurs at late stage VII through early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, is a crucial cellular event of spermatogenesis.(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease with an increasing prevalence. The primary pathogenesis of the disease is still elusive, resulting in the lack of specific treatments. AD is currently considered a biphasic disease, with T(H)2 predominating in acute disease and a switch to T(H)1 characterizing chronic disease. Elucidation of the(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may have an important role in tumor immunity. We studied the activation state of TAMs in cutaneous SCC, the second most common human cancer. CD163 was identified as a more abundant, sensitive, and accurate marker of TAMs when compared with CD68. CD163(+) TAMs produced protumoral factors, matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 11(More)
BACKGROUND Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by progressive skin de-pigmentation due to the loss of cutaneous melanocytes. The exact cause of melanocyte loss remains unclear, but a large number of observations have pointed to the important role of cellular immunity in vitiligo pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, we(More)
During spermatogenesis, preleptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in the seminiferous epithelium, which is reminiscent of viral pathogens breaking through the tight junctions of host epithelial cells. The process also closely resembles the migration of leukocytes across endothelial tight junctions to reach inflammation sites. Cell(More)
The objective of this study was to purify cells in the Leydig cell lineage following regeneration after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment and compare their steroidogenic capacity. Regenerated progenitor (RPLCs), immature (RILCs), and adult Leydig cells (RALCs) were isolated from testes 21, 28 and 56 days after EDS treatment respectively. Production(More)
Inflammation-associated pigmentation changes are extremely common, but the etiology underlying this clinical observation remains elusive. Particularly, it is unclear how the myriad of cytokines known to be involved in inflammatory skin processes affect epidermal melanocytes. We sought to determine how IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) influence normal(More)
In adult rat testes, blood-testis barrier (BTB) restructuring facilitates the migration of preleptotene spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment that occurs at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle. Structural proteins at the BTB must utilize an efficient mechanism (e.g. endocytosis) to facilitate its transient 'opening'. Dynamin II, a large(More)