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BACKGROUND In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about(More)
INTRODUCTION Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased among youth in recent decades, accounting for approximately 13% of total calories consumed. The Boston Public Schools passed a policy restricting sale of sugar-sweetened beverages in Boston schools in June 2004. The objective of this study was to determine whether high school students'(More)
The timely restructuring of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that facilitates the migration of preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes, which occurs at late stage VII through early stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, is a crucial cellular event of spermatogenesis.(More)
During spermatogenesis, preleptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in the seminiferous epithelium, which is reminiscent of viral pathogens breaking through the tight junctions of host epithelial cells. The process also closely resembles the migration of leukocytes across endothelial tight junctions to reach inflammation sites. Cell(More)
BACKGROUND Vitiligo is a common skin disorder, characterized by progressive skin de-pigmentation due to the loss of cutaneous melanocytes. The exact cause of melanocyte loss remains unclear, but a large number of observations have pointed to the important role of cellular immunity in vitiligo pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS In this study, we(More)
Inflammation-associated pigmentation changes are extremely common, but the etiology underlying this clinical observation remains elusive. Particularly, it is unclear how the myriad of cytokines known to be involved in inflammatory skin processes affect epidermal melanocytes. We sought to determine how IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) influence normal(More)
Cytokine-driven inflammation underlies the pathobiology of a wide array of infectious and immune-related disorders. The TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) proteins have a vital role in innate immunity by conveying signals from cell surface receptors to elicit transcriptional activation of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines. We discovered that a ubiquitin(More)
The pathogenesis of BCC is associated with sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. Vismodegib, a smoothened inhibitor that targets this pathway, is now in clinical use for advanced BCC patients, but its efficacy is limited. Therefore, new therapeutic options for this cancer are required. We studied gene expression profiling of BCC tumour tissues coupled with laser(More)
Immune suppressed organ transplant recipients suffer increased morbidity and mortality from primary cutaneous SCC. We studied tumor microenvironment in transplant-associated SCC (TSCC), immune-competent SCC and normal skin by IHC, IF and RT-PCR on surgical discard. We determined T cell polarization in TSCC and SCC by intracellular cytokine staining of T(More)
AGree AGree seeks to drive positive change in the food and agriculture system by connecting and challenging leaders from diverse communities to catalyze action and elevate food and agriculture policy as a national priority. Through its work, AGree will support policy innovation that addresses four critical challenges in a comprehensive and integrated way to(More)