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Rare inactivating mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, TP53 and CHEK2 confer relative risks for breast cancer between about 2 and more than 10, but more common variants in these genes are generally considered of little or no clinical significance. Under the polygenic model for breast cancer carriers of multiple low-penetrance alleles are at high risk, but few(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches(More)
Barrett's esophagus is an increasingly common disease that is strongly associated with reflux of stomach acid and usually a hiatus hernia, and it strongly predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a tumor with a very poor prognosis. We report the first genome-wide association study on Barrett's esophagus, comprising 1,852 UK cases and 5,172 UK(More)
Accurate duplication of DNA prior to cell division is essential to suppress mutagenesis and tumour development. The high fidelity of eukaryotic DNA replication is due to a combination of accurate incorporation of nucleotides into the nascent DNA strand by DNA polymerases, the recognition and removal of mispaired nucleotides (proofreading) by the exonuclease(More)
To identify common variants influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we performed a meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies, comprising 5626 cases and 7817 controls of European descent. We conducted replication of top ranked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in additional series totalling 14 037 cases and 15 937 controls, identifying a(More)
An important class of genetic variants that affect disease susceptibility may lie within regulatory elements that influence gene expression. Regulatory sequences are difficult to identify and may be distant from the genes they regulate, but many lie within evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs). We used comparative genomics to identify 12 ECRs up to 75 kb(More)
STK15 may be a low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene, and several reports suggest that women who are homozygous for the polymorphic variant F31I have an increased risk of breast cancer. To evaluate this potential breast cancer allele, we genotyped 507 patients with two primary breast cancers and 875 population-based control subjects for the STK15(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subsequently, the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma(More)
INTRODUCTION Sex steroids, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and prolactin are breast cancer risk factors but whether their effects are mediated through mammographic density, one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, is unknown. If such a hormonal basis of mammographic density exists, hormones may underlie ethnic differences in both mammographic(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of complex aetiology, with much of the expected inherited risk being due to several common low risk variants. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified 20 CRC risk variants. Nevertheless, these have only been able to explain part of the missing heritability. Moreover, these signals have only been inspected(More)