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There is huge variability among populations of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens (formerly Thlaspi caerulescens) in their capacity to tolerate and accumulate cadmium. To gain new insights into the mechanisms underlying this variability, we estimated cadmium fluxes and further characterized the N. caerulescens heavy metal ATPase 4 (NcHMA4) gene in(More)
Higher plant nitrate reductases (NRs) carry an N-terminal domain whose sequence is not conserved in NRs from other organisms. A gene composed of a full-length tobacco NR cDNA with an internal deletion of 168 bp in the 5' end fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and appropriate termination signals was constructed and designated as delta NR. An(More)
We estimated the level of quantitative polymorphism for zinc (Zn) tolerance in neighboring metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Arabidopsis halleri and tested the hypothesis that divergent selection has shaped this polymorphism. A short-term hydroponic test was used to capture the quantitative polymorphism present between edaphic types, among(More)
The synthesis of phytochelatins (PC) represents a major metal and metalloid detoxification mechanism in various species. PC most likely play a role in the distribution and accumulation of Cd and possibly other metals. However, to date, no studies have investigated the phytochelatin synthase (PCS) genes and their expression in the Cd-hyperaccumulating(More)
Pollution by heavy metals is one of the strongest environmental constraints in human-altered environments that only a handful of species can cope with. Identifying the genes conferring to those species the ability to grow in polluted areas is a first step towards a global understanding of the evolutionary processes involved and will eventually improve(More)
Genome scans based on anonymous Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers scattered throughout the genome are becoming an increasingly popular approach to study the genetic basis of adaptation and speciation in natural populations. A shortcoming of this approach is that despite its efficiency to detect signatures of selection, it can hardly help(More)
On sols highly polluted by trace metallic elements the majority of plant species are excluders, limiting the entry and the root to shoot translocation of trace metals. However a rare class of plants called hyperaccumulators possess remarkable adaptation because those plants combine extremely high tolerance degrees and foliar accumulation of trace elements.(More)
Arabidopsis halleri is a model species for the study of plant adaptation to extreme metallic conditions. In this species, cadmium (Cd) tolerance seems to be constitutive, and the mechanisms underlying the trait are still poorly understood. A previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis performed on A. halleri × Arabidopsis lyrata backcross population1(More)
Messenger RNAs encoding the nitrate reductase apoenzyme from tobacco can be translated in a cell-free system. Poly(A)+ mRNA fractions from the 23-32 S area of a sucrose gradient were used to build a cDNA library in the expression vector gt11 with an efficiency of cloning of approximately 10(4) recombinants/ng mRNA. Recombinant clones were screened with a(More)
Sixty-five Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutants affected in the nitrate reductase structural gene (nia mutants) have been analyzed and classified. The properties evaluated were: (a) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (two-site ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody as coating reagent and (b) presence of partial catalytic activities, namely nitrate reduction with(More)