Claire Lavigne

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Managing the spatial distribution of crop and non-crop habitats over landscapes could be used as a means to reduce insect pest densities. In this study, we investigated whether or not landscape characteristics affected the number of codling moths in commercial orchards. To do this, we collected overwintering larvae in 2006 and 2007 in 76 orchards over a 70(More)
Rare long distance dispersal events impact the demography and the genetic structure of populations. When dispersal is modelled via a dispersal kernel, one possible characterisation of long-distance dispersal is given by the shape of the tail of the kernel, i.e. its type of decay. This characteristic is known to directly act on the speed and pattern of(More)
Neutral landscape models are not frequently used in the agronomical domain, whereas they would be very useful for studying given agro-ecological or physical processes. Contrary to ecological neutral landscape models, agricultural models have to represent and manage geometrical patches and thus should rely on tessellation methods. We present a three steps(More)
In the atmosphere, pointlike sources are surrounded by aureoles because of molecular and aerosol scattering. In various meteorological conditions, this variance field can be a nonnegligible part of the signal detected by a large-field-of-view sensor. A model based on a Monte Carlo technique has been developed to simulate the propagation of radiation coming(More)
The comparison of the genetic differentiation of quantitative traits (QST) and molecular markers (FST) can inform on the strength and spatial heterogeneity of selection in natural populations, provided that markers behave neutrally. However, selection may influence the behaviour of markers in selfing species with strong linkage disequilibria among loci,(More)
ABSTRACT Numerous morphological species of pathogenic fungi have been shown to actually encompass several genetically isolated lineages, often specialized on different hosts and, thus, constituting host races or sibling species. In this article, we explore theoretically the importance of some aspects of the life cycle on the conditions of sympatric(More)
Comparisons of estimates of genetic differentiation at molecular markers (F(ST)) and at quantitative traits (Q(ST)) are a means of inferring the level and heterogeneity of selection in natural populations. However, such comparisons are questionable because they require that the influence of drift and selection on Q(ST) be detectable over possible background(More)
Point sources in the atmosphere are surrounded by aureoles because of atmospheric scattering. The properties of an aureole were calculated by use of a Monte Carlo approach and an iterative method for an isotropic source and an axially symmetric emission source inside an infinite homogeneous atmosphere. The influence of single-scattering albedo, optical(More)
Birds are regarded as appropriate biological indicators of how changes in agricultural practices affect the environment. They are also involved in the biocontrol of pests. In the present study, we provide an assessment of the impact of pest control strategies on bird communities in apple orchards in southeastern France. We compared the structure (abundance,(More)
Pollen dispersal is a critical process defining connectivity among plant populations. In the context of genetically modified (GM) crops in conventional agricultural systems, strategies based on spatial separation are promoted to reduce functional connectivity between GM and non-GM crop fields. Field experiments as well as simulation studies have stressed(More)