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Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a unique p19 subunit, and a common p40 subunit shared with IL-12. IL-12 is important for the development of T helper (Th)1 cells that are essential for host defense and tumor suppression. In contrast, IL-23 does not promote the development of interferon-gamma-producing Th1 cells, but is one of the(More)
Interleukin (IL) 23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of a p19 subunit and the p40 subunit of IL-12. IL-23 affects memory T cell and inflammatory macrophage function through engagement of a novel receptor (IL-23R) on these cells. Recent analysis of the contribution of IL-12 and IL-23 to central nervous system autoimmune inflammation demonstrated that(More)
Initiation of an effective immune response requires close interactions between innate and adaptive immunity. Recent advances in the field of cytokine biology have led to an increased understanding of how myeloid cell-derived factors regulate the immune system to protect the host from infections and prevent tumor development. In this review, we focus on the(More)
IL-23 is a member of the IL-12 cytokine family that drives a highly pathogenic T cell population involved in the initiation of autoimmune diseases. We have shown that IL-23-dependent, pathogenic T cells produced IL-17 A, IL-17 F, IL-6, and TNF but not IFN-gamma or IL-4. We now show that T-bet and STAT1 transcription factors are not required for the initial(More)
Sphingosine kinase (Sphk) phosphorylates sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), but its recently identified isoform Sphk2 has been suggested to have distinct subcellular localization and substrate specificity. We demonstrate here that, surprisingly, Sphk2(-/-) CD4(+) T cells exhibit a hyperactivated phenotype with significantly enhanced(More)
Interleukin (IL)-25 is a member of the IL-17 family of cytokines. However, unlike the other members of this family, IL-25 promotes T helper (Th) 2 responses. We now show that IL-25 also regulates the development of autoimmune inflammation mediated by IL-17-producing T cells. We have generated IL-25-deficient (il25-/-) mice and found that they are highly(More)
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