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Lee, Young, Reddish, Lough, and Clayton (1983) reported that the timing control of jumping and vertically punching a dropping ball exploits the inverse of the rate of change of optical expansion, tau(r). We raise a number of methodological and logical criticisms against their experiment and conclusions and attempt to rectify them by examining elbow joint(More)
Previous research has shown that skilled athletes are able to respond faster than novices to skill-specific information. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether expert outfielders are faster than non-experts in acting on information about the flight of a fly ball. It was hypothesized that expert outfielders are better attuned to this information; as(More)
Novice observers differ from each other in the kinematic variables they use for the perception of kinetic properties, but they converge on more useful variables after practice with feedback. The colliding-balls paradigm was used to investigate how the convergence depends on the relations between the candidate variables and the to-be-perceived property,(More)
The catchableness of a fly ball depends on whether the catcher can get to the ball in time; accurate judgments of catchableness must reflect both spatial and temporal aspects. Two experiments examined the perception of catchableness under conditions of restricted information pickup. Experiment 1 compared perceptual judgments with actual catching and(More)
Two processes have been hypothesized to underlie improvement in perception: attunement and calibration. These processes were examined in a dynamic touch paradigm in which participants were asked to report the lengths of unseen, wielded rods differing in length, diameter, and material. Two experiments addressed whether feedback informs about the need for(More)
  • C F Michaels
  • 1988
In choice reaction time, stimuli and responses in some combinations (e.g., based on spatial arrangement) are faster than in other combinations. To test whether motion toward a position yields faster responses at that position, a computer-generated square in front of one hand appeared to move either toward that hand or toward the other hand. Compatible(More)
Earlier studies suggested that the calibration of actions is functionally, rather than anatomically, specific; thus, calibration of an action ought to transfer to actions that serve the same goal (Rieser, Pick, Ashmead, & Garing, 1995). In the present study, we investigated whether the calibration of perception also follows a functional organization: If one(More)
The theory of direct perception holds that competent observers are able to detect optical patterns that specify the relative mass of colliding balls. Heuristic theorists, on the other hand, claim that judgments of relative mass are based on variables that do not specify relative mass. We contrasted these views with an experiment in which participants were(More)
A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by(More)