Claire E Witherel

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In normal tissue repair, macrophages exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) at early stages and a pro-healing phenotype (M2) at later stages. We have previously shown that M1 macrophages initiate angiogenesis while M2 macrophages promote vessel maturation. Therefore, we reasoned that scaffolds that promote sequential M1 and M2 polarization of(More)
The mechanisms by which macrophages control the inflammatory response, wound healing, biomaterial-interactions, and tissue regeneration appear to be related to their activation/differentiation states. Studies of macrophage behavior in vitro can be useful for elucidating their mechanisms of action, but it is not clear to what extent the source of macrophages(More)
Chronic wounds remain a major burden to the global healthcare system. Myriad wound matrices are commercially available but their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that macrophages are highly influenced by their microenvironment, but it is not known how different biomaterials affect this interaction. Here, it was(More)
Chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by excessive pro-inflammatory or "M1" activation of macrophages, the primary cells of the innate immune system. Current treatments include delivery of glucocorticoids (e.g. dexamethasone - Dex), which reduce pro-inflammatory M1 behaviour in macrophages. However, these treatments(More)
The mechanical properties of hydrogels used in biomaterials and tissue engineering applications are critical determinants of their functionality. Despite the recent rise of additive manufacturing, and specifically extrusion-based bioprinting, as a prominent biofabrication method, comprehensive studies investigating the mechanical behavior of extruded(More)
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