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OBJECTIVE To review the teratogenesis associated with pre-existing and gestational diabetes, to provide guidelines to optimize prevention and diagnosis of fetal abnormalities in women with diabetes, and to identify areas specific to fetal abnormalities and diabetes requiring further research. OPTIONS Pre-conception counselling, pre-conception and first(More)
We reviewed the available molecular cytogenetic techniques and their potential use in prenatal diagnosis of fetuses with multiple congenital anomalies and a "normal" standard chromosomal karyotype. We searched Medline to identify reports published after 1995 that were related to molecular prenatal diagnosis. After review, we reached the following(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide information regarding the use of folic acid in combination with a multivitamin supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies, so that physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health care workers can assist in the education of women in the pre-conception phase of their health care. OPTION:(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the obstetrical outcomes associated with abnormally elevated or decreased level of one or more of the most frequently measured maternal serum marker analytes used in screening for aneuploidy. To provide guidance to facilitate the management of pregnancies that have abnormal levels of one of more markers and to assess the usefulness of(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide recommendations to physicians, midwives, genetic counsellors, and clinical laboratory scientists involved in pre-conceptional or prenatal care regarding carrier screening for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies (e.g., sickle cell anemia and other qualitative hemoglobin disorders). OUTCOMES To determine the populations to be screened(More)
OBJECTIVE The study was undertaken to determine the risks of adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and to determine whether these risks vary by prepregnancy risk status. STUDY DESIGN All women who underwent double-marker screening(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide a teratology update for prescription and non-prescription drugs and infections during pregnancy. OPTIONS Limited to teratology principles and possible common exposures during pregnancy. EVIDENCE A search of Medline and textbooks was conducted for information published to June 2006 on teratology exposure risks. This document(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide information to genetic counsellors, midwives, nurses, and physicians who are involved in the prenatal care of women dealing with prenatally diagnosed isolated or multiple structural congenital anomalies. OUTCOMES To provide better counselling for women and families who are dealing with the diagnosis of a fetal structural anomaly. (More)
OBJECTIVE To review the techniques and indications of preimplantation genetic testing, including preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening. OPTIONS Limited to an introductory discussion about the genetic aspects of preimplantation reproductive techniques. OUTCOMES This update does not discuss in detail the adverse outcomes that have been recorded(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the molecular genetic techniques currently available for rapid prenatal diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy, as well as those still under investigation. OPTIONS Limited to introductory discussion of rapid aneuploidy detection methods. EVIDENCE Medline was searched for articles related to the topic that were published after 1992. This(More)