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Embryonic spinal motor neurons are thought to depend for survival on unidentified factors secreted both by their peripheral targets and by cells within the central nervous system. The neurotrophins are a family of polypeptides required for survival of discrete central and peripheral neuronal populations in vivo and in vitro. In spite of their ability to(More)
Olfactory marker protein (OMP) genomic clones were isolated from a Charon 4A phage lambda rat genomic library. A 16.5-kilobase (kb) fragment of the rat genome containing the gene was isolated and characterized. Sequence analysis of the gene showed the absence of introns and the lack of CAAT and TATA boxes in the 5' flanking region. The transcription(More)
We have shown that the intensity of expression of the C-C chemokine receptor CCR5 at the single CD4(+) cell level strongly determines the efficiency of its function as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. By analogy, we examined if the number of CCR5 molecules at the cell surface might determine its chemotactic response to CCR5 ligands. To(More)
BACKGROUND Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. METHODS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)(More)
The binding of R5 envelope to CCR5 during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry provokes cell activation, which has so far been considered to have no effect on virus replication, since signaling-defective CCR5 molecules have been shown to function normally as HIV-1 coreceptors on transformed cells or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes. As the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription relies on its transactivating Tat protein. Although devoid of a signal sequence, Tat is released by infected cells and secreted Tat can affect uninfected cells, thereby contributing to HIV-1 pathogenesis. The mechanism and the efficiency of Tat export remained to be documented. Here, we show that, in(More)
The region from 1.4 to 2.7 kb upstream of Drosophila melanogaster gene Sgs-3 is responsible for a 10-fold increase in Sgs-3 transcript levels in the third instar larval salivary gland. This region includes the related Sgs-7 gene from the 68C glue gene cluster as well as 400 bp of its 5' sequences. We show that two elements are involved, each contributing a(More)
Currently, there is no treatment to cure transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. By taking advantage of the 'prion-resistant' polymorphisms Q171R and E219K that naturally exist in sheep and humans, respectively, we have evaluated a therapeutic approach of lentiviral gene transfer. Here, we show that VSV-G (vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein)(More)
We have identified previously a novel complex mutant allele in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in a patient affected with cystic fibrosis (CF). This allele contained a mutation in CFTR exon 11 known to cause CF (S549R(T>G)), associated with the first alteration described so far in the minimal CFTR promoter region(More)
HIV-1 gene expression is the major determinant regulating the rate of virus replication and, consequently, AIDS progression. Following primary infection, most infected cells produce virus. However, a small population becomes latently infected and constitutes the viral reservoir. This stable viral reservoir seriously challenges the hope of complete viral(More)