Clément Gauthier

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National government establishments, including regulatory agencies, are part of national science systems, which are a subset of larger national innovation systems. The forces that have influenced the basic roles of national government establishments in five countries over the past 10 yr are reviewed on the basis of a study commissioned by Industry Canada in(More)
The authors describe landmarks in animal-based research and examine key moral statements on the use of animals in scientific research. The principles of 'reduction, replacement and refinement' are suggested as a focus around which both the animal welfare and the scientific communities of the world can unite. This paper reviews the progress achieved in the(More)
The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) is scheduled to publish Guidelines on the Care and Use of Wildlife on its website in January 2003. The underlying ethical basis of all CCAC guidelines and policies requires adherence to the concept of the Three Rs of Russell and Burch (reduction, refinement and replacement). However, the(More)
The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) publishes data on over 25 species of animals used in science, and the US Department of Agriculture publishes data on six of those species. Between 1980 and 1999, the reduction in animal use was found to be correlated between Canada and the USA for dogs (r = 0.944, p < 0.001), cats (r = 0.839, p < 0.001), rabbits (r(More)
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