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The distal region of mouse chromosome 7 contains a cluster of imprinted genes that includes H19 and Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2). H19 is expressed as an untranslated RNA found at high levels in endodermal and mesodermal embryonic tissues. This gene is imprinted and exclusively expressed from the allele of maternal origin. The Igf2 gene shows a(More)
In eukaryotes, the interphase nucleus is organized in morphologically and/or functionally distinct nuclear "compartments". Numerous studies highlight functional relationships between the spatial organization of the nucleus and gene regulation. This raises the question of whether nuclear organization principles exist and, if so, whether they are identical in(More)
In vertebrates, cytosine methylation is an epigenetic DNA modification that participates in genome stability and gene repression. Methylation patterns are either maintained throughout cell division, or modified by global or local de novo methylation and demethylation. Site-specific demethylation is a rather elusive process that occurs mainly in parallel to(More)
How polycomb group proteins repress gene expression in vivo is not known. While histone-modifying activities of the polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) have been studied extensively, in vitro data have suggested a direct activity of the PRC1 complex in compacting chromatin. Here, we investigate higher-order chromatin compaction of polycomb targets in vivo.(More)
PC4- and SF2-interacting protein 1 (Psip1)-also known as lens epithelium-derived growth factor (Ledgf)-is a chromatin-associated protein that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, and cell survival in vitro, but its biological function in vivo is unknown. We identified an embryonic stem cell clone with disrupted Psip1 in a gene(More)
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) mouse cells have been shown to be resistant to infection by retroviruses and small oncogenic DNA viruses, including simian virus 40 and polyoma. When allowed to differentiate, in vitro or in vivo, EC cells become as susceptible to these viruses as differentiated mouse cell lines are. In order to study the relationships between(More)
Cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides contributes to the epigenetic maintenance of gene silencing. Dynamic reprogramming of DNA methylation patterns is believed to play a key role during development and differentiation in vertebrates. The mechanisms of DNA demethylation remain unclear and controversial. Here, we present a detailed characterization of(More)
During the development of tissues, complex programs take place to reach terminally differentiated states with specific gene expression profiles. Epigenetic regulations such as histone modifications and chromatin condensation have been implicated in the short and long-term control of transcription. It has recently been shown that the 3D spatial organization(More)
Here we present MethylQuant, a novel method that allows accurate quantification of the methylation level of a specific cytosine within a complex genome. This method relies on the well-established treatment of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite, which converts cytosine into uracil without modifying 5-methyl cytosine. The region of interest is then(More)
Position within chromosome territories and localization at transcription factories are two facets of nuclear organization that have been associated with active gene expression. However, there is still debate about whether this organization is a cause or consequence of transcription. Here we induced looping out from chromosome territories (CTs), by the(More)