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The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the thalamic intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are considered to be the main centers of the mammalian circadian timing system. In primates, the IGL is included as part of the pregeniculate nucleus (PGN), a cell group located mediodorsally to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. This work was carried out to(More)
The pretectum is involved in the neural integration of visually dependent responses. We studied the occurrence of immunoreactivity for subunits that constitute the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the chick pretectum. Four pretectal nuclei of the chick brain, namely, the nucleus pretectalis, the(More)
The avian optic tectum has become a reliable model system to study the basic mechanisms that underlie the computation of visual stimuli. Many aspects of its cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, connectivity and development are thoroughly characterized. However, knowledge about its monoaminergic innervation is still incomplete. As a prerequisite to(More)
The thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receives afferents from numerous brain areas, including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), considered to be the major circadian pacemaker. The PVT also sends projections to the SCN, limbic system centers and some nuclei involved in the control of the Sleep-Wake cycle. In this study, we report the(More)
Chicken (Gallus gallus) brains were used to investigate the typology and the immunolabel pattern for the subunits composing the AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluR) of hindbrain neurons of the dorsal (dND) and ventral nuclei (vND) of the Deiter's vestibular complex (CD), which is the avian correspondent of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) of mammals.(More)
The distribution of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits was studied in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) of chicks and pigeons. GluR1, GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits appeared to be present in EW neurons of both species, but interspecific differences were observed in the abundance of the different types of subunits found in EW neurons. Of(More)
Inspired by risk-sensitive, robust scheduling for planetary rovers under temporal uncertainty, this work introduces the Probabilistic Simple Temporal Network with Uncertainty (PSTNU), a temporal planning formalism that unifies the set-bounded and probabilistic temporal uncertainty models from the STNU and PSTN literature. By allowing any combination of(More)
Many studies indicate that thimet oligopeptidase (EC3.4.24.15; TOP) can be implicated in the metabolism of bioactive peptides, including dynorphin 1-8, α-neoendorphin, β-neoendorphin and GnRH. Furthermore, the higher levels of this peptidase are found in neuroendocrine tissue and testis. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of acute cocaine(More)
The nucleus pretectalis (PT) of birds is an ovoid-shaped visuomotor cell group of the pretectum that receives tectal input and projects back to the optic tectum. We performed immunohistochemical single- and double-labeling to determine the distribution and abundance of neurons containing three calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), and(More)
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